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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Tuesday, August 31, 2010

Day 184; Qur’an 25: 56-77, Page 365 + 366

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

You have noticed the back-dates on these Posts, dear Friends, and might be wondering what's going on:  I am trying to catch up, if possible.  I HAVE ALSO ADDED SOME INFO TO THIS POST.
Your Forbearance is most appreciated!

Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter.
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

Wasn’t it interesting, dear Reader, to find that the great ‘tool’ of ‘Jihaad,’ in which the Messenger was commanded to exert himself ‘to great exertion’….. the great ‘tool’ of ‘Jihaad’ IS this Revelation, of which he was the ‘Warner’ نذير?
وجاهدهم به جهاداً كبيرا.....….
What has happened to us, that we have given it up?
Perhaps today would be a good time for us to start exerting ourselves to emulate ‘Ibaadul Rahmaan,’ in the eight beautiful sets of attributes which mark them out.

We might not feel comfortable discussing them when we are SO lacking… but we must realize that: 
‘If we are fortunate, we will start this Jihaad sometime:  Perhaps that time is the present!  So, let us read and understand these attributes.  Contemplate where we fall short.  Exert ourselves to fulfill each verse.  It’s worth it!’     
(May God strengthen us all to be the best Worshippers we can be… Ameen!)

PAGE 365 Arabic Qur’an.

1.  We begin today’s Reading with Verses 56- 57 and the declaration that ‘you’ (Muhammad) were sent as a Bearer of Glad Tidings and Warner, commanding him to make clear that he sought no recompense in delivering this message.

Verse 58 is beautiful:

“Hence, place your trust in The Ever-Living Who does not die, and be active سبح in His Praise, for He suffices as One who is Well-acquainted with His Worshippers’ transgressions.”

Remember, ‘Tasbeeh’ is constant MOTION as each organism fulfills its purpose in existence; it is what ALL of creation is doing, at all times.

2.  In Verse 59 The ‘Rahmaan’ is described as having created the Heavens and Earth in six aeons أيام- (not ‘days’), after which he secured and sustained it, taking it into His full command ((استوى على العرش.  From April 9th we also read this excerpt:

“We should bear in mind that the word in Arabic (see below[i]) expresses BUILDING, complete with raising and fortifying what is built.  The 'arch' which the Qur'an ALWAYS mentions with regard to God's Creation, is directly related to the form and function of this universe, as the receptacle of LIFE.  Verse HQ 2:255 tells us about God, that " slumber nor sleep overcomes Him..."  The concept of the 'Arch' seems to have been well-understood by early Muslims who manifested it into their architecture; see 'The Arch Which Never Sleeps' in sidebar.”

And then, in Verse 60, we read of Qureish being asked to prostrate and worship Al Rahmaan, even as they wonder, ‘What is al Rahmaan?’ The word only increases them in aversion!  (Both Ali and Asad translate Al Rahmaan as ‘the Most Gracious.’)

Regular Readers will remember that Al Rahmaan is He Who created the earth and the heavens on high..’  as we saw in HQ 20:5-6, discussed on July 20th.

This is a VERY important ‘word,’ which we must be familiar with so as to benefit fully from Iqrathechallange.  Besides the connotation of ‘Rahmaan’ and its contextual presence in the Qur’an, it is grammatically distinctive, as we discussed on Aug 29th.

3. Verse 61 takes us to the Heavens – of which Outer Space is a part.  This verse is considered a ‘Scientific Marvel,’ as the properties of the sun and moon were unknown when it was revealed.

In Verse 62, Night is mentioned as best-suited for Remembrance تذكّر while Daytime is best-suited for Productivity شكور (accepting what’s little and making the most of it, discussed June 10th).

Q. And whom do you think would be BEST at making use of their Nightly solitude for Remembrance, and the Daytime for productivity?

A.  The Worshippers of Al Rahmaan, of course!
(Ibaad means 'Worshippers,' not ‘slaves/ servants.’  The latter would be 'Abeed.')

4.  Ibaadul Rahmaan, by definition, are those who worship God as the Source, the Generator of Life Who brought them into being by His Spirit.  They worship Him Who Is Eternal AND Active with regard to His Creation. 

Q.  But how is it, that when we put "عباد الرحمن" within quotes in Tanzil, we find that they are Angels?

A.  Because 'Ibaadul Rahmaan' is what Angels proved themselves to be, after they were told to honor Adam:  they were true Worshippers of our Creator.
(See July 7th, and remember how the Deviant/Sheytaan suddenly refused to obey ‘Al Rahmaan’ at that point.)
Also take a look in Tanzil.  Without quotes, we get 4 verses which help us understand the concept better, and we read today’s verse which clearly shows that Ibaadul Rahmaan are also Humans who prove themselves in Life… but what a category of Humans! 

Humans who pursue an ACTIVE, ever-advancing relationship with Him:
·   First, we learn that they are Those who tread UPON the earth gently and humbly, giving the Ignorant who accost them, only responses of ‘Peace!’ (Verse 63).
Dear Reader,
I find the word ‘upon’- "على" quite significant, and believe that it indicates more than mere ‘traveling through the earth, since that is already mentioned as "سيروا في الأرض" (put both phrases with quotes in Tanzil to see difference). 

I believe this relates to our impact upon this earth and maintaining its well-being, which includes all Life upon it, as well as its natural resources and ecology, which includes our Carbon Footprints!  THAT is why we need to respond with ‘Peace!’ to The Ignorant.  What does conflict bring to this Earth, but devastation?

·   Second, we learn that they are also Those who spend their nights in Prayer (Verse 64).

·   Third, we learn that they are also Those who supplicate to their Lord for deliverance in the Afterlife (Verse 65- 66).

·   Fourth, we learn that they are also Those who are neither extravagant nor stingy, but balance their spending rightfully (Verse 67).

PAGE 366 Arabic Qur’an.

·   Fifth (Verse 68), we learn that they are also Those who:

¨ Do not call upon a deity other than God.
¨ Do not kill the Self which God has made inviolable except in Justice (by Law).
¨ Do not commit ‘zinaa,’ ie: do not fornicate.

NOTE:  This verse is the BASIS because it contains Faith in God.  What this in fact means is that:
No one can be a Worshipper of God to begin with, without upholding this verse IN ITS ENTIRETY.  Only after upholding the tenets in this verse can we try to achieve the rest.

These three qualities united in one verse indicate that Believing in God AND preserving Lives AND maintaining chastity go together.  This further highlights what we discussed in the Chapter of Light, where we looked upon sexually-charged and ‘open’ demeanor as major distractions from Awareness and Advancement as Cognizant Humans.

The verse ends by announcing that any who commit ذلك THAT deed,(single: الإعراب: ذلك: اسم إشارة للمفرد) shall be met with (a variety of) Hindrances- أثاما. 

Although 'that' has often been taken to refer to all three deeds, I suspect that it only refers to the last deed, Fornication.  As we know, the first and second deeds lead to more than mere 'Hindrance:'
-The first deed, 'Shirk' شرك is the gravest (put "لا يغفر" with quotes in Tanzil and read HQ 4:48, 116).  
- The second deed is THE most severely penalized (read HQ 4:93).

After that, (in Verse 69), we are told that the suffering of such persons is doubled on the Day of Resurrection, where s/he shall be debased يخلد فيه in humiliation مهانا. Notice that it does not speak of 'a lengthy time span,' which is called 'abad أبد'.

It is important to note that the connotation of 'khuld خلد*' on its own, which we commonly understand as 'eternity,' actually means 'steadfastness,' as in being 'set in, or upon' something as in HQ 7:176, '..inclined to the earth..'. (Actually, if you put the word الخلد in Google Translate you'll find out that it means 'mole,' the animal which burrows into the earth and is completely inclined to it.)

That is why, as Researchers, we shall have to take a second look at all the verses which we have previously understood to indicate 'Eternity,' keeping in mind that this concept might be different than what the Qur'an actually says.... and God knows best!

Back to our Reading: 
After DISSUASION, when listeners are told that the suffering of such persons is doubled on the Day of Resurrection, where s/he shall be debased  in humiliation, comes PERSUASION:

… except for  those who repented, believed, and worked good deeds (Verse 70), in which case God would exchange their bad deeds for good ones, for God is, and has always been, Most Merciful and Unceasingly Compassionate.
Then, Verse 71 underscores Returning to God توبة-, after which we continue our Reading of the attributes in Ibaadul Rahmaan:

·   Sixth, we learn that they are also Those who do not bear false witness, and when they encounter hearsay and gossip, they pass by it with dignity (Verse 72).
·   Seventh, we learn that they are also Those who, when reminded of God’s Signs, do not fall upon them, deaf and blind (Verse 73).

·   Eighth, we learn that they are also Those who supplicate to their Lord, asking Him to ‘grant us of our spouses and offspring a Soothing of the eyes – and render us Foremost among the Aware’ (Verse 74).

It IS worthwhile to be among the Worshippers of Al Rahmaan in Life; remember HQ 19:61-63, which mentions Al Rahmaan’s certain-to-be-realized promise.  As for the afterlife, at a time when there will be no choice, EVERYONE will be ‘Abd’ of Al Rahmaan (HQ 19:93)!

5. Verses 75- 76 tell us of the ‘lofty statusالغرفة- ’ earned by Ibaadul Rahmaan due to their Forbearance and Perseverance /Sabr (صبر), and the greetings of Peace they receive.


So, it’s Forbearance and Perseverance, then!
Only ‘Sabr’ can enable us to accomplish what they did, day and night, day and night, every day of our lives.
And what if we get hindered, or fail?  That’s when we get up, announce our Faith in The Creator and seek His Forgiveness, making amends and trying again (as we learnt from Verse 70)..  calling unto Him… always calling unto Him!
That is when our misdeeds get transformed to good ones, and we regain our position as potential ‘Ibaadul Rahmaan.’

THAT is the discovery we arrive at, today.  

6. Verse 77 ends today’s Reading, with a statement to be relayed by the Messenger Muhammad to those who have Belied /Disbelieved, where we note that: Calling unto God is what makes all the difference!  

Enough said!

Our next Reading is from HQ 26:1-67; a new Chapter!

Peace unto all!

[i] (عرش) يدلُّ على ارتفاعٍ في شيء مبنيّ، ثم يستعارُ في غير ذلك. من ذلك العَرْش، قال الخليل: العرش: سرير الملِك. وهذا صحيحٌ، قال الله تعالى: {وَرَفَعَ أبَوَيْهِ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ}  [يوسف 100]، ثم استُعير ذلك فقيل لأمر الرّجُل وقِوامه: عرش. وإذا زال ذلك عنه قيل: ثُلَّ عَرشُه.  ومن الباب: تعريش الكَرْم، لأنّه رفعه والتوثُّق منه. والعريش: بناءٌ من قُضبانٍ يُرفَع ويوثَّق حتَّى يظلّل. ويقال لسَقْف البَيْت عَرْش. قال الله تعالى: {فَهي خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَى عُرُوشِها} [الحج 45]، والمعنى أنَّ السَّقف يسقُط ثم يتَهافت عليه الجُدرانُ ساقطةً. ومن الباب العَرِيش، وهو شِبْه الهَوْدَجِ يُتَّخَذ للمرأة تقعُد فيه على بعيرها. ومن الباب: عَرَشْتُ الكرم وعَرَّشْتُه. يقال: اعتَرش العنبُ، إذا علا على العَرش. ومن الباب: عَرْش البِئر: طيُّها بالخشَب. قال بعضهم: تكون البئرُ رِخوةَ الأسفل والأعلَى فلا تُمسِكُ الطَّيَّ لأنَّها رَملة، فيعرَّش أعلاها بالخشَب، يُوضَع بعضُه على بعض، ثمَّ يَقُوم السُّقاة عليه فيستقون.

خلد: يدلُّ على الثبات والملازمَة، فيقال: خَلَدَ: أقام، وأخلَدَ أيضاً. ومنه جَنَّةُ الخُلْدِ
ويقولون رجلٌ مُخْلَدٌ ومُخْلِد، إذا أبطأ عنه المشِيب. وهو من الباب، لأنَّ الشَّباب قد لازمَه ولازَمَ هو الشباب. ويقال أخْلَدَ إلى الأرض إذا لَصِق بها. قال الله تعالى: {وَلَكِنَّهُ أخْلَدَ إلَى الأَرْضِ} [الأعراف 176]. فأما قوله تعالى: {وَيَطُوفُ عَلَيْهِمْ وِلْدَانٌ مُخَلّدُونَ} [الإنسان 19]، [فهو] من الخُلْد، وهو البقاء، أي لا يموتون. وقال آخرون: من الخِلَد، والخِلَدُ: جمع خِلَدة وهي القُرْط. فقوله: {مُخَلّدُونَ} أي مقرَّطون مشنَّفون.
وهذا قياسٌ صحيح، لأنّ الخِلَدةَ ملازمةٌ للأُذُن.
والخَلَد: البال، وسمِّي بذلك لأنّه مستقرٌّ [في] القلب ثابتٌ.

Monday, August 30, 2010

Day 183; Qur’an 25: 33-55, Page 363 + 364

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter.
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.


PAGE 363 Arabic Qur’an.

1. We begin today’s Reading with Verse 33, an illuminating statement which indicates that, no matter what examples the Deniers might transmit to the Messenger, God communicates The Truth and the best of explanation.
(I am researching the distinction between the two Arabic verbs (أتى – جاء), ‘ataa’ and ‘jaa’a,’ which appear together in this verse.  We commonly take them both to mean ‘come /bring,’ but since no two words are alike, I’ll look into it and get back to you, God-willing.)

2.  Verse 34 is the final verse in a section which was describing the final ‘Hour’ (Verses 11- 24).  It tells us about Those who are gathered to Hell (having arrived there) ACCORDING TO THEIR OWN DIRECTION–على وجوههم – following their own bearings.  Ali and Asad both translated ‘wujooh’ as ‘faces’ (singular: wajh وجه- Put wajh in ‘Search this Site’). 
Such persons have done the exact opposite of those we mentioned on Jan. 10th, where we said, with regard to HQ 2:112:

Verse112 is explained, that by submitting one’s whole ‘Being’ or ‘Self’ (Asad, Ali respectively) WHILST doing good deeds, people shall have no fear nor shall they grieve.
Taking into consideration the fact that the word ‘wajh’ means ‘direction’ (not simply ‘face’) – and the word ‘Ihsaan’ is mentioned in the Qur’an as the topmost of one’s acts of voluntary goodness, I believe that:
People of Faith are given their BEARINGS in this verse: Whoever focuses direction purely towards God, while performing deeds of goodness that surpass the call of duty, their reward is with their Lord and no fear shall be brought upon them nor shall they grieve.  What a beautiful and inclusive message!”

Then, Verses 35- 36- 37- 38- 39 mention three Prophets:  Moses (who was given the Compilation), assisted in his mission by his brother Aaron; and then Noah, peace upon them all.  Noah’s people, who were drowned, and other tribes who had also belied God’s Signs became, each in their own Destruction, a ‘Sign’ unto others.
3.  Verse 40 presents Prophet Muhammad’s tribe, Qureish (who did not anticipate ‘Nushoorنشور- ’) with the option of learning from these lessons as they travelled past these destroyed townships. 
‘Nushoor’ literally means ‘Open Emergence,’ which we understand as ‘Resurrection’- where we all emerge openly, from our graves, out into the open!

Verses 41- 42 narrate their deeds, their feelings and their words, as they ridiculed him and decided to show ‘forbearance’ by clinging onto their idols. 
Verse 42 also warns them that they’ll realize their loss when they see the Suffering with their own eyes.

4.  Verse 43 is about our ‘هوى [i]–Hawaa,’ which can be literally defined as our ‘Plummeting Desire leading to Emptiness. 
Hawaa is therefore ALWAYS negative, indicating a ‘falling’ as we can see when we put the following sequence in Tanzil:  هوى -نه -شه -له -قه –ته , and read the 6 verses.

The precision of the Arabic language always amazes me.  When Desire rules, it ALWAYS plummets us headlong towards its Object, ‘the object of our Desire…’ which is why the two concepts indicating ‘Desire’ on one hand, and ‘Plummeting, or Falling with speed,’ BOTH have ‘Hawiya هوي-’ as their root-verb. 

But there is more: 
This root-verb also denotes ‘Hawaa’e هواء-,’ which means ‘empty space’ or Void (we mentioned this earlier -on June 14th- when we talked about persons whose “Fou’aad were Hawaa’e أفئدتهم هواء-”)… hence my full translation:

Hawaa = Plummeting Desire leading to Emptiness.

Put الهوى in Tanzil and note the 4 times this noun with the definite article (al=the) appears in the Qur’an.  Read HQ 79:40, which shows us that being in awe of/ fearing Our Lord’s ‘Presence’ means restraining and deterring our own Selves from the ‘Hawaa’- the ‘Plummeting Desire which leads to Emptiness.’

Following Desire:

·   Is a symptom of the Heart/Mind’s Unawareness (HQ 18:28).
·   Is the main reason for lack of Faith (HQ 28:50).
·   Leads to Loss of Guidance/ Error ضلال and diverts from God’s Way (same verse above, and HQ 38:26).
·   Leads to Inequity/ Injustice (HQ 4:135).
·   Makes people into Wrong-doers (HQ 30:29).
·   Embellishes misdeeds (HQ 47:14).
·   Debases people, to their lowest possible ‘Selves,’ keeping them earth-bound, tired and panting, making sure they cannot rise to their potential as Aware, Cognizant Humans (HQ 7:176).
·   While following OTHER people’s Desire:
Seems to be most serious, virtually breaking the covenant with God, and that applies to ANYONE who follows other people’s desire AFTER Knowledge has reached him (even Messengers- see HQ 2:120).
Put "ولا تتبع" in Tanzil.

Thankfully, Truth /Justice الحق does NOT follow human Desire.  If it did, the HEAVENS AND THE EARTH WOULD HAVE BEEN CORRUPTED, as we saw in HQ 23:71 on Aug 11th. 

That day, we also read our Teen Motto which said:

“…I respect my Desires,
but since they contradict one another
I will be selective:
I will control any desire that does not respect
my Self, my Mind, my Conscience, my Soul, and my Body!...”

We discussed (Nuha) the self-restraining Mind, and its role  in deterring 'Hawaa' on July 21st, and found this feat rooted in fearing ‘our Lord’s Presence.’  We realized then, that the more Aware we are of our Lord’s Presence, the less difficult it becomes for us to restrain our Selves.

Back to Verse 43:
This verse is telling the Messenger, peace upon him, that he is NOT responsible for persons who take their own ‘Hawaa’ as deity!  It is setting his mind at rest, and assuring him/ and listeners, that when ‘Desire’ is the deity, no Goodness is expected because Hawaa, by definition, is: Plummeting Desire leading to Emptiness. 

However, what Verse 43 also indicates, is that he may have been troubled by people’s refusal to accept the guidance he was offering them.  Perhaps he felt that he had not completely fulfilled his duty, peace upon him.  These verses seem to put his mind at ease, and also inform its recipients as to the limits of his responsibility (put ‘his responsibility’ in ‘Search this Site’).  His responsibility was in the complete and clear Delivery of the Message, and had nothing to do with whatever its recipients chose to do with it.  

PAGE 364 Arabic Qur’an.

5.  From the Q and A in Verse 44 to the Statement in Verse 56:
These verses continue to address the Messenger (and listeners), describing God’s Bounty VERSUS most people’s Denial.  Most people do not listen or ‘secure knowledge ofيعقل- ’ what they hear.  They seem to be like cattle, but are actually worse at finding their way.

Verses 45- 46- 47- 48- 49- 50 describe the Shade/ Shadow as it changes with the Sun, the Night as a ‘garment[ii] FOR US, together with Sleep as Repose, and Daytime as an ‘Open Emergence’ (Nushoor) of each of us, to our affairs.  Also the winds that carry glad tidings of rain, by which He revives dead townships, quenching the thirst of animals and humans alike. 
Put نشور in Tanzil and note that this word appears most frequently in this chapter (verses 3, 40, 47).
You might also enjoy putting the full sequence وهو الذي الليل in Tanzil and reading all six beautiful verses.

6.   Verse 51 indicates that, had God so willed, every human gathering (villageقرية- ) would have had a Warner.
       Verse 52 is SO IMPORTANT, and is one of those verses which have been completely overtlooked:  Here we find the Prophet commanded NOT to obey the Deniers but rather to exert himself in delivering this Message to them, ‘with great exertion’ )jihad (جهاد-.  This is the 'Jihaad' everyone has missed:  Jihad by way of the Qur'an!

Verse 53 is considered a ‘Scientific Marvel’:  It describes the two bodies of water, Rivers and Seas, and where their waters MERGE to form a distinctive ‘Barrier’ (see also HQ 55:19-20).  Yes, dear Reader: The English ‘merge’ and the Arabic ‘maraja’ are one and the same word, with similar pronunciation and IDENTICAL meaning.  But do we expect English Etymologists to reflect that?  Not at all (see below)*.

7.  In Verse 54 we read that it is God Who created, from water, the human species ‘basharبشر-’ rendering them blood-relatives or relatives by marriage.
Remember the difference between ‘bashar’ and ‘insaan’ April 6th, July 14th (bashar is how we began, and it denotes our species).
Also remember HQ 21:30, which told us that He created everything Alive, from water.

Verse 55 ends today’s Reading, with a declaration as to what the Deniers’ worship, and how they behave towards God.

Enough said!

Our next Reading is from HQ 25: 56-77; which will be quite exciting, as the Qur’an will introduce us to some very special people indeed: ‘Ibaadul Rahmaan,’ or Worshippers of God, the Creator! 
May we strive to be among them!

Peace unto all!

[i] هوي: يدلُّ على خُلُوٍّ وسقوط. أصله الهواء بين الأرض والسماء، سمِّي لخلوِّه. قالوا: وكلُّ خالٍ هواء. قال الله تعالى: {وأفْئِدَتُهُمْ هَوَاءٌ} [إبراهيم 43]، أي خاليةٌ لا تَعِي شيئاً.
ويقال هَوَى الشّيءُ يَهوِي: سقط. وهاويةُ: جهنم؛ لأنَّ الكافِر يَهوِي فيها. والهاوية: كلُّ مَهْواة. والهُوَّة: الوَهدة العميقة. وأهْوَى إليه بيده ليأخذه، كأنّه رمَى إليه بيده إذا أرسلها. وتهَاوَى القَوْمُ في المَهْواة: سقط بعضهم في إثْر بعض.
وأمَّا الهوى: هَوى النَّفسِ، فمن المَعنيين جميعاً، لأنه خالٍ من كلِّ خير، ويَهوِي بصاحِبِه فيما لا ينبغي. قال الله تعالى في وصف نبيّه عليه الصلاة والسلام: {وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الهَوَى}[النجم 3]. يقال منه هَوِيتُ أهْوَى هَوىً.

[ii] Explained fully in ‘The Marriage Union’ from which comes this excerpt:
“Besides one’s mate, there seems to be another bequest created specifically to provide humans with ‘tranquility’ sakeena. Furthermore, this bequest is also considered a ‘garment’!“And it is He who made the night as a robe (garment ‘libaasan’) for you, and sleep as repose….”
(Qur’an:, 25:47).

“And We made the night as a garment. And We made the day as means of sustenance.”
(Qur’an:: 78:10-11).

“It is He who made the night for you to settle- rest-find solace within it (‘li-taskunu feeh’) and the day well-sighted……”
(Qur’an:, 10:67).

This correlation between marriage and nighttime is quite significant. Spouses and nighttime are called ‘libas’; spouses and nighttime are ‘sakan’ or ‘sakeena’. By revealing the purpose of ‘sakeena’ with regard to nighttime we may reveal the purpose of ‘sakeena’ with regard to marriage.

“It is He who appointed the night and day in succession for whomever has the will to reflect يذّكر (by night) and whomever has the will to be productive in gratitude شكورا (by day) .
Qur’an: (25:62).

Nighttime then is for reflection, remembrance ‘tathakkur’, a spiritual exercise that can only be accomplished in a state of ‘sakeena’ or tranquility. Tranquility therefore is necessary for spiritual enhancement. Moreover, the Qur’an shows us how tranquility augments and strengthens faith, or ‘Iman’:

‘It is He who sent down tranquility ‘sakeena’ into the hearts of Believers so that they may increase in Faith ‘Imaanan’ unto their own Faith, for to God belong the forces of heavens and earth and God is the Knower, the Wise”.
(Qur’an: 48:04)”

“Merge: 1630s, “to plunge or sink in,” from Latin mergere “to dip, dip in, immerse, plunge,” probably rhotacized from mezgo, from PIE mezg- “to dip, plunge” (cf. Sanskrit majjati “dives under,” Lithuanian mazgoju “to wash”).”

The origin is thought to be Proto-Indo-European, or Sanskrit, or even Lithuanian… and NOT the so much more historically-logical and linguistically-close Arabic!!!  This, despite the fact that the so-called ‘rhotacized’  word ‘mezgo’ is ALSO probably from the Arabic ‘mezj/ مزج’ which means to ‘mix.’  

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