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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


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A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Tuesday, December 21, 2010

Day 281; Qur’an 74: 1-56, pages 575-577

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter..
NEW: Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.
سورة المدَّثِّر
'The One Blanketed (in layers)’
From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

This Surah is from about the same time as the last one. Its subject matter is also similar: Prayer and Praise, and the need of patience in a period of great spiritual stress: the unjust who cause sorrow and suffering now will themselves experience agony in the Hereafter.’

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

Although some verses of this surah may have been revealed at a slightly later time, there is no doubt that all of it belongs to the earliest part of the Mecca period, that is, to the very beginning of Muhammad's mission. But in spite of its early origin and its brevity, the surah outlines almost all the fundamental concepts to which the Qur'an as a whole is devoted: the oneness and uniqueness of God, resurrection and ultimate judgment; life after death and the allegorical nature of all descriptions relating to it; man's weakness and utter dependence on God, his proneness to false pride, greed and selfishness; each human being's responsibility for his own behaviour and doings; "paradise" and "hell" as natural consequences of one's earthly life, and not as arbitrary rewards or punishments; the principle of the historical continuity of all true religious experience; and various other ideas and concepts which were to be more fully developed in later revelations.’


In our previous chapter we mentioned that most commentators had traditionally considered the words 'Al Muzzammil' and 'Al Muddathir' to be similar in meaning, even though they are noti. As we noted then, the root-verb 'zamala' is about being 'burdened.'
It is today's chapter 'Al Muddathir' which is addressed to him who is 'gathered up in layers/ blankets (see root-verb 'Datharaدثرii), calling him to 'Rise to Action,' guiding him to the discipline and awareness which his Rising would entail.

PAGE 575 Arabic Qur’an
1.  Verses 1- 7 call upon him who is 'gathered up in layers/ blankets,' spurring him to prompt action with the command: 'Qum/ Rise/ Get up...!' This word is mentioned twice in the Qur'an, here and in the previous chapter, but while the previous chapter bids him (Muhammad) rise to pray in private, this Chapter bids him rise to warn in public.
Six requirements of physical behavior and mental attitude are necessary, for him to begin working in his capacity as Messenger, peace upon him. These requirements range from the most public -which is about alerting everyone with regard to his Message, to the most private -which is about directing himself towards his Lord in patience and forbearance.
  • The first command: Rise and warn!
  • The second command: Glorify/'Kabbir' your Lord:
    No doubt that the Messenger understood what this meant, but how about us?
    'Glorifying' our Lord is about exalting our perception of Him, and our behavior in the light of His commands; that we hold Him above all others, acknowledging His Mastery over all beings/ worlds; that we acknowledge WHO He is iii.
    Take a look at HQ 17: 111, where we find what 'Glorification/ Takbeer' entails.
  • The third command: Purify your 'thiyaab/ habits' ( customary practices, clothing, dwelling):
    The root-verb 'thawaba/ ثَوَبَ 'iv has, as its primary connotation, something customary 'frequented, returned to again and again,' while 'clothing' is a secondary connotation of the word (it is quite interesting to note that the English word 'habit' also has these three connotations, proof that our needs and concepts as humans, parallel each other in different parts of the world!).
    What this verse points to therefore, is NOT simply clothing, but rather, one's entire manner of existence on a habitual, daily basis. The most difficult steps in purifying/ cleansing our habits and habitation are the FIRST: It is only after these initial steps that we can continue at relative ease, maintaining purity, but only IF we continue to do so at a regular, measured pace. This 'maintenance' is another reason for the five daily 'Salaat/ Connection/ Relationship/ Prayers,' with all that they entailv.
  • The fourth command: Abandon/ forsake Rujz:
    As we can see in our definition below, 'rujz' is about 'agitation/ turmoil (vi), and the Prophet is told to 'abandon/ forsake' whatever may be the cause of that, which seems to be in direct relation to purifying his habits and habitation.
  • The fifth command is about performing good deeds with HUMILITY, rather than self-satisfaction or pride/ منvii, as in HQ 23: 60:
    Do not seek 'self-interest/ or self-aggrandizement' from the good you may do, or feel/ or make others feel that they are beholden to you.
  • The sixth command, 'to your Lord be forbearing,' is the clincher, which closes this set of requirements. Nothing of importance can happen without forbearance, without patience, without perseverance, and the word 'TO' points both at The Destination to whom one commits, and to The Source Whose strength one seeks with this forbearance.
    See all eleven times in which the Prophet was commanded to forbear (فاصبر).
2.  Then, Verses 8-13 take us on a 'fast-forward' leap to Judgment, when all shall be known and everything judged and admonished. When 'Al-Naqoor/ The Impacter' is impacted (upon all), that shall be the time most difficult for Deniers! It is then that God Himself is 'Alone' to deal with each of us, His Creatures, taking account of how we have made use of His gifts to us, especially our affluence and progeny (whatever we were given and whatever we have produced, bearing witness to our performance). It IS powerful to hear that:
'Let Me be, with Whom I have created, Alone!'
Variations of the root-verb 'naqara'viii' (to indent/ impress/ impact) appear three times in the Qur'an, twice as 'naqeer,' which is the 'groove' or 'indentation' in a date-pit, and here as 'naaqoor,' which refers to 'Judgment Day,' that highly 'impressive/ impactful' stage of our existence, when everything shall be known, and everyone judged and admonishedix.
The noun 'shuhoodx' is the plural of 'shaahed,' which refers to someone who at a certain time becomes witness to something. Here, one's 'baneen/ offspringxi' are 'shuhood/ witness.' Since it is here a 'gift' from God, it indicates their outliving their parents, which is certainly a blessing!
(Another noun from the same root-verb is 'shaheed' (plural: 'shuhadaa'), which refers to someone who is -due to inherent characteristics, experience or knowledge- worthy of bearing witness to something. God always says of Himself that He is 'Shaheed').
Extensive wealth... Offspring who become living 'witnesses' to the lives, deeds, accomplishments of their parents... and, meanwhile, God had 'mahhada/ spread out/ smoothened/ made comfortable' for each person (his/her life), in a literal sense. It is interesting to note that although God may do that for us in life, the path to the Afterlife is 'smoothened' by OUR GOOD DEEDS; they pave the way to our final destination (see HQ 30:44).
Verses 14- 16 continue, first mentioning the GREED of such a person (whom God had created and amply gifted, yet constantly wants God to give him more), then his STUBBORN RELUCTANCE as he denies God's Signs.
See all four recurrences of the word عنيد in the Qur'an (xii), as well as important footnote about the word 'jabbaar' (xiii).
Although Verse 17 indicates that God '… shall overwhelm him by the need to catch up,' which sounds like a threat, it really illustrates for us, quite graphically, the consequence of Greed, when one keeps wanting more, and then more, constantly running to achieve something yet never catching up. We've already discussed the connotations of the root-word 'rahaqa-رهق,' which was about something becoming quickly overbearing upon another, hastening something as it delays something else, and hardly catching up. See in Qur'an how humiliating this state is! Now, combining the word “Sa'aDa”- صعد' to this image (definition below, from our more than 1000 year old Lexiconxiv), we add 'spiraling exhaustion' to the picture, and are able to get a FULL understanding of what stubborn greed causes us! Wow. Isn't Arabic fantastic?

PAGE 576 Arabic Qur’an

4.  In Verses 18- 25 we have the description of someone who 'fakkara/ xvmulled over something, ' pondering carefully about it, deliberated, 'qaddara/ projected to the utmost,' and concluded.
Then we see how the Qur'an rates his conclusion:
He shall be brought to disgrace and death by the manner in which he concluded!'
This is the second incidence of the word ‘qutila/ قُتِلَ in the Qur’anxvi. Earlier, we had said that this word 'berated a person as he was committing a certain misdeed by saying: ‘May he be brought to disgrace and death.’ Actually, I'd like to correct that now: The verb 'qutila' in the past tense indicates a 'done deed,' like saying that 'He is a 'gonner' for doing this.'
Back to our verses:
After emphasizing on such a person's deliberation and (mis-guided projection and) conclusion, the verses continue, showing how at length, this person looked, scowled, froze 'basaraبسرxvii' (soft 's'), followed through and was arrogant (labeling the Qur'an which he was obviously listening to), saying that it is nothing but 'folk magic' (part of folklore). It is nothing but the 'saying/ call' of a mere mortal.
God speaks in the first person 'I' asserting in Verse 26 that He shall 'uSleehi/ conjoin (by fire)' this person in 'Saqar.' (Saqar is a feminine noun which means 'scorching blaze'- see belowسقرxviii).
Then He says, 'and maa adraaka,’ that 'you (O Muhammad), would not be able to pursue it to determine, what is Saqar' (see 12 instances of this expression in Qur'an- put 'daraa' in 'Search'). And then we are told three of its characteristics, in three very short verses:
  • It does not let (anything) remain, and leaves nothing (unattended).
  • It is 'lawwaaHa' (xix) 'gleaming' to mankind (explained by some as 'gleamingly obvious,' and by others as 'scorching').
  • Upon it are Nineteen.
    Q. Nineteen what?
    A. The Qur'an does not elaborate in Verse 30, but seems to do so in Verse 31, and the general consensus (of Commentators) is that the number 'nineteen' points to the number of Custodians/ Angels appointed over 'Saqar.' Now, although that number might also be significant to later Recipients/ Readers of Qur'an (causing 'fitnah' to some, increasing the faith of others, while others queried about it), it seems to me that this verse is referring to how its FIRST Recipients, in their different affiliations, would react at the time of its Revelation, and therefore it would have accomplished its initial purpose at the time (with further purpose and occasion in future).
    It reads as follows (in interpretation):
    'We have not rendered The Companions of the Fire except 'Custodians/ Angels,' and we have not rendered their number except a 'fitnah/ 'trial' (literally, a trial by Fire to extract true nature), to assure Those who had received (Earlier) Compilation, and to increase the Faith of Those who had attained Faith, and so that (both) Those who had received (Earlier) Compilation and Those who attained Faith would not doubt, and so 'Those in whose heart/ mind is a disease' (Hypocricy) and the Deniers would say: 'What is God's purpose regarding this example?' Such does God cause to be lost/ misguided whoever wills (to be so), and guides whoever wills (to be so), and none knows the 'junood/ gathered agents/ forces' of your Lord except Himself, and it (f., referring to Saqar) is but a Reminder to Mankind.'
    (Put 'junood' in 'Search').
See this verse in TEN explanations, and read important footnotexx.

5. Verses 32- 34 each hold a vow/ qassam, which, as Regular Readers know, emphasize information of great importance... information which appears in Verses 35-37:
'Nay, by the Moon. And by the Night as it retreats. And by the Morning as it exposes (asfaraxxi).' 'Indeed, it (f. Saqar) is one of the Great. A Warner to Mankind. To any of you who wishes to advance or to lag behind.
Advancement is OUR CHOICE.
Then, Verse 38 gives us a statement of fact, that every Self is 'hostage to/ held in pledge for' what s/he has earned! This concept is similar to HQ 52:21, which also indicated that we are literally BOUND by our deeds. Here however, the verses make an exception, UNBINDING a certain category of 'elite' persons, titled 'the Companions of the Right.' Residing in the Gardens, such persons ask each other about the 'Mujrims,' Those who had extracted themselves from Faith. Then, an all-important QUESTION is asked of these 'Mujrims' in Verse 42:
What is it, that made you get 'conducted through/ hemmed in' Saqar xxii?”
Listen carefully to their response, which shows that each of them had truly earned the title of 'Mujrim!' They do, in fact, prove themselves quite lacking and 'disconnected' as Cognizant Humans (remember 'jarama' means to cut off/ extract).
They had purposefully remained INACTIVE in the two most basic aspects of outreach in life, and had shown grave deficit in their nature and behavior, as proven by another two characteristics.
Their response is that:
  • 'We were NOT of Those who established Relationship (with God and others).'
  • 'We were NOT of Those who fed the helpless poor ('miskeen' is one who has no way of making money).'
  • 'We used to indulge with The Indulgent (Verse 45- خوض - mentioned in 9 verses of the Qur'an, is about the 'herd mentality,' when one does something unfavorable simply because others are doing it.
  • 'We used to belie (deny the existence of) the time of Accountability.' In Verse 47, at the end of their confession, they say that this was their state, until 'Certitude/ yaqeen' came to them.
Regular Readers will remember that the moment of Certainty -to many- is the moment of Death, when one's full Reality is finally observable.
PAGE 577 Arabic Qur’an
    6. Verse 48 closes the scene of the Hereafter, with a sweeping statement that NO intercession of intercessors will avail them.
    Flash-forward to the present:
    Verse 49 asks listeners an indirect question:
    Speaking about them in the third person 'they,' it asks, what is the matter with them that they turn away from The Reminder? Then Verses 50- 51 liken them in their abrupt rush to get away, to wild asses fleeing the Predatorxxiii. This again shows us that much of what they were doing, was due to their blinded 'herd mentality.'
    Verses 52- 53 tell us that each person was demanding 'open scrolls' to be delivered to them; Nay, they do not believe in the Hereafter.
    Verses 54- 56 CONCLUDE this chapter by asserting that THIS (m. the Qur'an) is a Reminder, and that whoever wishes to, would remember... and that they (the Deniers) shall not remember unless God wills, He is worthy of Awareness and Worthy of granting Forgiveness.
    What a Chapter, dear Reader!
    Give yourself a chance to go through it again, as it holds MANY valuable concepts, guidelines, and self-challenges for us to work through as we proceed on our journey towards God (and please pray for me to be able to do the same).
Peace unto all!
These are the titles and opening address of Chapters 73 and 74. Both were traditionally understood as: He who is 'cloaked/ covered in blankets,' but that is inaccurate with regard to Chapter 73, as we noted I the last post.
دثر: هو تضاعُفُ شيءٍ وتناضُدُه بعضِه على بعض. فالدَّثْر: المال الكثير. والدِّثار: ما تدثَّر به الإنسانُ، وهو فوق الشِّعار.‏ والدَّثُور: الرّجل النَّؤُوم.وسمِّي لأنَّه يتدثَّر وينام. فأمّا قولهم رسْمٌ داثِرٌ، فهو من هذا، وذلك أنَّه يكون ظاهراً حتى تهبّ عليه الرِّياحُ وتأتِيَه الرَّوامسُ، فتصيرَ له كالدِّثار فتغطِّيه.‏

    See two Prophets' definitions of WHO Rabbil-'Aalameen is:
      -Prophet Moses' definition to Pharaoh, who considered himself the 'Lord Highest' (HQ 26: 23- 27).
      -Prophet Abraham's definition to his people, who were seeking the help and favor of idols (HQ 26: 72- 82).
ثوب: هو العَوْدُ والرُّجوع
يقال ثاب يثُوب إذا رَجَع. والمَثَابةُ: المكان يَثُوب إليه النّاس. قال الله تعالى: {وَإذْ جَعَلْنَا البَيْتَ مَثَابَةً لِلنَّاسِ وَأَمْناً} [البقرة 125]. والمَثَابة: مَقام المُستَقِي على فَمِ البِئرْ. وهو مِنْ هذا، لأنّه يثُوب إليه، والجمع مَثَابات.
والثّوابُ من الأجْر والجزاء أمرٌ يُثابُ إليه.  
والثوب الملبوس محتملٌ أن يكون من هذا القياس؛ لأنّه يُلْبَس ثم يُلبَس ويثاب إليه. وربَّما عبَّروا عن النفس بالثَّوب، فيقال هو طاهر الثِّياب

    Our five daily 'Salaat/ Prayers/ Connection/ Relationship' entail:
  • Clearing Time (allocating specific time for prayer no matter what else is going on).
  • Purifying the body (with a full bath/ ghusl or with ablution/ wudu before prayer, unless there is distress/s physical harm, in which case the symbolic gestures of 'tayammum' would suffice).
  • Purifying the clothes (only the cleanest and best clothes to be worn for prayer).
  • Purifying the place of worship (from all 'pollutants,' dirt, images, shapes).
  • Purifying the heart (from attachment to, and dependence on, anyone other than God).
  • Purifying the mind (from distraction during prayer).
  • Purifying the Purpose (towards God Alone, not because of our needs, but rather, because He is Worthy of worship).
  • Purifying the senses (from sensory needs. Hunger, thirst, and bowel-movement must be addressed prior to approaching prayer. Pain and distress must be avoided, therefore prayer must be undertaken in the most comfortable physical position. Invalids may adopt any position... lying down, praying with their eyes, or with their heart alone).
Although similar to 'rijs,' these two words are not the same.
The root-verbs 'rajaza' is about 'agitation,' as in the disease which causes tremor in camels, or the 'rajaz' popular genre of poetry, with iambic meter and pounding rhythm.  
  رجز: يدلُّ على اضطرابٍ. من ذلك الرَّجَزُ: داءٌ يصيبُ الإبلَ في أعجازِها، فإذا ثارت النّاقةُ ارتعشَتْ فَخِذاها
ومن هذا اشتقاق الرَّجَزِ من الشِّعر؛ لأنه مقطوع مضطرب

رجس:  يدلُّ على اختلاطٍ. يقال هُمْ في مَرْجُوسَةٍ مِن أمرِهم، أي اختِلاط. والرَّجْس صوت الرَّعد، وذلك أنه يتردَّد. وكذلك هَدِيرُ البعيرِ رَجْسٌ. وسَحابٌ رَجّاسٌ، وبعيرٌ رَجّاس. وحكى ابنُ الأعرابيِّ: هذا رَاجِسٌ حَسَنٌ، أي راعِدٌ حَسن. ومن الباب الرِّجْس: القَذَر؛ لأنّه لَطْخٌ وخَلْط.
.من:  الميم والنون أصلان. أحدهما يدلُّ على قطع وانقطاع، والآخر على اصطناع خير
الأوّل [المنّ]: القطع، ومنه يقال: مَنَنْتُ الحبلَ: قطعته. قال الله تعالى: {فلَهُمْ أَجْرٌ غَيْرُ مَمْنُونٍ} [التين 6]. والمَنُون: المنيّة، لأنها تنقص العدد وتقطع المدَد.
والأصل الآخر المَنُّ، تقول: مَنّ يمنّ منَّاً، إذا صنع صُنعاً جميلاً. ومن الباب المُنّة، وهي القُوَّة التي بها قِوام الإنسان، وربما قالوا: مَنَّ بيدٍ أسداها، إذا قَرَّع بها. وهذا يدلُّ على أنّه قطع الإحسان، فهو من الأوّل.
نقر:  أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على قَرعِ شيءٍ حَتَّى تُهْزَم فيه هَزْمَةٌ، ثم يتوسَّع فيه.
منه] منقار الطَّائر، لأنه يَنقُر به الشَّيء حتّى يؤثِّر فيه
ومن الباب نقَّرتُ عن الأمر حَتَّى علِمتُه، وذلك بَحْثُك عنه، كأنَّ عِلمَك به نَقْرٌ فيه. ونقرت الرّجلَ: عِبْتُه، كأنَّك قرعتَ بشيءٍ فأثّرتَ فيه. والنَّقير: نُكتة في ظَهر النَّواة. وهو الذي جاءَ النَّهْيُ فيه. وفلانٌ كريم النَّقِير، أي الأصل، كأنَّه المكانُ الذي نُقِر عنه حَتَّى خَرَج منه. والنَّاقور: الصُّور الذي يَنفُخ فيه المَلَكُ يومَ القيامة، وهو يَنقُر العالَمِينَ بقَرْعِهِ.
ومن الباب: نقَّرت عن الأمر، إذا بحثْتَ عنه

Traditionally, 'naqoor' has been taken to indicate the 'trumpet' call (to judgment), but as we can also see in our more than 1030 year old definition, it is about impact, knowledge and admonishment.

الشاهد اسم فاعل من الفعل: "شهد" والشهيد صفة مشبهة باسم الفاعل من الفعل : " شهد " أيضاً. والفرق بينهما أن اسم الفاعل يدل على الحدوث والتجدد. والصفة المشبهة تدل على الثبات والدوام.شهود جمع شاهد وهو من شهد يشهد ,وشهداء جمع شهيد

xiI am aware of a contemporary explanation which says that the plural 'baneen/ banoon' could be referring to 'buildings' rather than 'offspring,' but at this point in my research I do not consider that likely.
عند: العين والنون والدال أصلٌ صحيح واحدٌ يدلُّ على مجاوزةٍ وتركِ طريق الاستقامة. قال الخليل: عَنَد الرّجل، وهو عانِدٌ، يَعْنُد عُنودَاً، إذا عَتا وطَغى وجاوَزَ قَدْرَه. ومنه المعانَدة، وهي أن يعرف الرّجُل الشيءَ، ويأبى أن يقبله. يقال: عَنَدَ فلانٌ عن الأمر، إذا حادَ عنه. والعَنُود من الإِبل: الذي لا يخالط الإبل، إنما هو في ناحية.

قال: وأمّا العَنيد، فهو من التجبُّر، لذلك خالفوا بين العَنيد، والعَنود، والعاند.
قال ابن دُريد: طريقٌ عاند، أي مائل. وناقة عَنودٌ، إذا تنكّبت الطّريقَ مِن نشاطها وقوّتها.
See definition of 'jabara' below.
Our Qur'an search-engine shows us that the word (عنيد -'aneed) is coupled once with the word 'kaffaar' -meaning 'constant Denier'- and twice with the word 'jabbaar' – which our definition shows us, is one who constantly 'domineers/ enforces/ rectifies' (according to personal views, of course).
'Jabbaar' is therefore a NEGATIVE connotation for humans, descriptive of how some seek to manipulate everything, bending others to their will to 'rectify' things according to their liking. No one should do that, not even the Messenger, to whom was told, quite clearly in HQ 50:45, that he should ONLY remind people, with the Qur'an, for HE IS NOT AN ENFORCER OF RECTIFICATION UPON THEM. This is a VERY important concept, which must be told to those who think that they can enforce their ideals upon others, especially for 'religious' purposes! It doesn't work like that; in fact, people end up HATING whatever is 'enforced' upon them. That's our nature, simply because of our free will. The only One Who can 'enforce rectification,' putting things ultimately Right by His Will, is God. Therefore 'Al-Jabbaar' / THE Enforcer / THE Rectifier' is one of God's Divine attributes.
جبر:هو جِنْسٌ من العظَمة والعُلوّ والاستقامة. فالجَبَّار: الذي طَال وفاتَ اليد، يقال فرسٌ جَبَّارٌ، ونخلة جَبَّارَةٌ. وذو الجَُبُّورة وذو الجُبَُرُوت: الله جلّ ثناؤه. ويقال فيه جبريّة وجَبَرُوَّةٌ وجَُبَُروتٌ وجَُبُّورة. وجَبَرْت العظْم فجَبَر. ويقال للخَشَب الذي يُضَمُّ به العَظْمُ الكسيرُ جِبارة، والجمع جبائِر. وشُبِّه السِّوارُ فقيل له جِبارة .

صعد:يدلُّ على ارتفاعٍ ومشقّة. من ذلك الصَّعُود خلاف الحَدُور، ويقال صَعِدَ يَصْعَد. الإِصعاد مقابلة الحَدُور من مكانٍ أرفع. والصَّعود: العقَبة الكَؤود، والمشقّة من الأمر، قال الله تعالى: {سَأُرْهِقُهُ صَعُودَاً}  [المدثر 17]. وأما الصُّعُدات فهي الطُّرُق، الواحد صَعيد. وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم :"إِيّاكم والقعودَ بالصُّعُدات إِلاَّ من أدَّى حَقَّها". وفي الكتاب المعروف بالخليل، قولهم تيمَّمْ بالصَّعيد، أي خُذْ من غُبارِهِ. فهذا خلافُ ما قاله الزَّجّاج.
ومن الباب الصُّعَداء، وهو تنفُّسٌ بتوجُّع، فهو نَفَسٌ يعلو، فهو من قياس الباب.. ويقال: تَصَعَّدَني الأمرُ، إِذا شقَّ عليكَ.
فكر: تردُّدُ القَلْب في الشَّيء. يقال تفكّرَ إذا ردَّدَ قلبه معتبِرا. ورجلٌ فِكِّير: كثير الفِكر
'Qutila' is mentioned in this exact grammatical form and context 5 times (HQ 51:10; 74: 20, 21; 80:17; 85:4).
بسر‏: أصلان‏:‏ أحدُهما الطَّراءة وأن يكون الشّيءُ قَبْل إناه‏.‏ والأصل الآخر وُقوف الشّيءِ وقِلَّةُ حَرَكته. فاالأوّل قولهم لِكلِّ شيءٍ غَضٍّ بُسْرٌ؛ ونباتٌ بُسْرٌ إذا كان طَرِيّاً. وماءٌ بُسْرٌ قريبُ عَهْدٍ بالسَّحاب. وابتَسَرَ الفَحْلُ النّاقةَ إذا ضَرَبَها على غيرِ ضَبَعَة. ويقال للشّمس في أوّل طُلوعِها بُسْرة. ومن هذا قولُهمْ بَسَر الرّجُل الحاجةَ إذا طَلَبها مِن غير مَوْضِع الطَّلَب. وقياسُه صحيح، لأنّه كأنّه طلبَها قبل إناها. والبَسْر ظَلْمُ السِّقَاء، وذلك شُرْبُه قبل رَوْبه.

سقر: أصلٌ يدل على إحراق أو تلويح بنار. يقال سقَرتْه الشَّمسُ، إذا لوّحتْه. ولذلك سمِّيت سَقَر. وسَقَرات الشمس: حَرُورها.

 لوح:  أصلٌ صحيح، مُعظَمه مقاربةُ بابِ اللَّمعان. يقال: لاحَ الشَّيء يلوح، إذا لمَحَ وَلَمَع. والمصدر اللَّوْح ويقال: ألاحَ بسَيفهِ: لمَعَ به. وألاحَ البرقُ: أومَضَ. إنَّ الألواح: ما لاح من السلاح، وأكثر ذلك السُّيوفُ.ومن الباب لَوّحَهُ الحرُّ، وذلك إذا حرَّقه وسوّدَه حتَّى لاح من بُعدٍ لمن أبصَرَه. ومن الباب اللَّوح: الكَتِف. واللَّوح: الواحد من ألواح السَّفينة؛ وهو أيضاً كلُّ عظمٍ عريض. وسمِّي لَوحاً لأنَّه يلُوح.

Several questions arise here:
What did the number 19 signify to the First Recipients of Qur'an?
1- Was 'the number of 'Custodians/ Angels' =19' familiar to the Jews and Christians of the time?
2- Was this a reference to lapsing Time, in a series of '19' which everyone understood when the Qur'an was revealed (yet some would have naturally been skeptical of its relevance)?
Indeed, the lunar calendar they used WAS based on a 19-year period so as to approximate the solar-year; also known as 'Metonic' cycle. It was used by the early Chinese, Babylonians, Greeks, and Jews (and, some say, the Arabs too, who based upon it their 'intercalation/ kabeesa/ nassee').
Does the number 19 mean anything to us?
1- Is it of any relevance that the written structure of the Qur'an is as important as the verbal, so much so, that the Messenger was known to have told scribes to write certain words with different letters than what was usual at the time (such as to replace the 'seen' with a Saad' in the all-important word 'siraaT' سراط # صراط )?
2- And then, there ARE certain patterns, such as the 19 written letters in the all-important Arabic words 'bismilahi RaHmaani RaHeem' بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم... with more to be uncovered in that respect.
I truly doubt that we can pinpoint today what this verse signified WHEN it was revealed, what everyone thought of it at the time.
3- There are also conflicting opinions among non-traditionalists as to what the number 'nineteen' signifies. Some consider this number a 'key' to help unlock certain 'truths', others consider it a 'Divine Code' which runs through the entire Qur'an. Some have used their 'code' to prove and disprove certain traditional 'givens,' while others have used their mathematical calculations to prophesy the 'end of Israel,' and the 'end of the world.' Readers can Google such subjects to find out more, but are advised NOT to consider other people's results 'accurate' without checking first. I personally tried out a few stated numbers myself with today's advanced Qur'an 'Search Engines,' and realized that some statements in famous circulations (especially those made decades ago, quoting numbers of words, letters, etc.. in the Qur'an) were inaccurate.
After studying today's Chapter, we should be especially wary of the 'herd' mentality, and should do our best not to 'indulge' with the Indulgent.
There is no doubt however that the Qur'an's words, verses, and chapters DO follow an intricate pattern, which is not only linguistically accurate, but would be just as amazing in other disciplines. We have already pointed to the many 'Scientific Marvels' which the Qur'an had quite clearly outlined, at a time when no one could have known or understood them, and I feel certain that there is a lot to be uncovered regarding mathematical structure in the Qur'an.
سفر: يدلُّ على الانكشاف والجَلاء. من ذلك السَّفَر، سمِّي بذلك لأنَّ الناس ينكشفون عن أماكنهم. والسَّفْر: المسافرون. قال ابن دريد: رجلٌ سَفْرٌ وقوم سَفْرٌ . يسمَّى ما يسقُطُ من ورق الشّجر السَّفِير
وإنّما سمّي سفيراً لأنَّ الرّيح تسفره. وأما قولهم: سَفَر بَيْن القوم سِفارة، إذا أصلح، فهو من الباب؛ لأنَّه أزال ما كان هناك من عَداوة وخِلاف. وسَفَرتِ المرأةُ عن وجهها، إذا كشفَتْهُ. وأسفر الصبح، وذلك انكشاف الظّلام، ووجه مُسفِر، إذا كان مُشرِقاً سروراً. ويقال استفَرَت الإبل: تصرفت وذهبَتْ في الأرض. ويقال للطعام الذي يُتّخذ للمسافر سُفْرة. وسمِّيت الجِلدة  سُفْرة. ويقال بعير مِسفَر، أي قويٌ على السَّفر.
'Saqar' is mentioned here for the third and last time in this Chapter, and was mentioned once in HQ 54: 48.
Commentators have explained 'qaswara' as a Predator, 'lion' or 'hunter.'

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