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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


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A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Tuesday, May 4, 2010

Day 101; Qur’an 9: 73-85, pages 199 + 200

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Today is all about the Hypocrites. 
Remember the beginning of Chapter 2 of the Qur’an? The first four verses described the Aware, the next two verses described those who Denied, and the next THIRTEEN verses described the Hypocrites!
Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter.
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

PAGE 199 Arabic Qur’an.
1.  Verse 73:

‘O Prophet, (جاهِد) continuously exert yourself against the Deniers and the Hypocrites, and (أُغلُظ عليهم) be tough/firm against them, and their refuge is Hell, and a dire destination.’

Note the commands, addressed specifically to the Prophet, peace upon him, as well as the two groups which he was dealing with (the idol-worshipping Deniers of Qureish, and the Hypocrites who had pretended to follow him but were actually plotting against him). 
Read the verse, as translated by Ali and Asad. 

How often has this verse been misexplained and taken out of context, despite the fact that when commanded to 'jihad,' the Messenger is told to 'exert himself IN DELIVERING THIS MESSAGE with great exertion!'  In fact, the definition of 'Jihad' which most people have missed is that it is by way of delivering this Guidance (see Aug 30th).
-Extremists have misunderstood such a verse-or purposefully taken it- as a general directive which they could apply against anyone of different attitudes and actions (justifying their attacks against Muslims too, since anyone who does not believe as they do is a hypocrite). 

-Intellectuals worldwide have not helped, since hardly anyone has challenged the completely incorrect explanations of both the words ‘jaahid’ AND ‘ughluth’  and some might have even validated the misconception by echoing it.
Besides the example of HQ 25:52, research easily shows us the obvious, that the word 'jihad جهاد' (and its command 'jaahid جاهد') is general; mostly about physical, mental, and financial struggle.  We have a good example in verses HQ 29:8 and 31:15 which tell us of PARENTS who 'struggle جاهدا'  against their children, attempting to dissuade them from worshipping God Alone.  Their exertion against their children is hardly an ARMED struggle!
Besides, to any who still insist that this verse is about an 'armed' struggle, we offer the following important observation: 

These commands are specific to Muhammad in his role AS PROPHET (relative to people around him), and directed against two specific parties combined: the Deniers and the Hypocrites. 
However, the Qur’an has NEVER indicated the taking up of arms against the Hypocrites, nor has the Prophet ever fought them.  Quite to the contrary: He treated them with seeming leniency, neither calling them to account, nor rebuking them for their actions or inaction.  As we shall see in Verse 84, he knew all about them, accepted them in the mosque, attended their burial when they died and even prayed for their souls!

The ‘jihad’ and the ‘toughness’ in this verse cannot be related to warfare or armed struggle since, with regard to Hypocrites, it never happened.  The consequence for their actions, as we see, is not delivered to them by human hand, but rather, by God Himself.

2. Verse 74 describes the Hypocrites; they denied AFTER tasting Pure Reverence to God.  Here too, we note that the consequence of their actions is Divinely delivered.

3. Verses 75-76-77 relate to their asking God for His bounty, pledging in return to do good deeds and be charitable.  Needless to say, they did not honor their pledge.  Their dishonesty and lack of integrity bred Hypocrisy in their hearts/minds.
Verse 78 questions them as to having under-estimated God’s knowledge, while Verse 79 tells us that they used to make fun of what some of the Believers gave in charity.

4.  We shall stop here to define the Arabic word for Hypocrisy, which is ‘nifaaq’ from the root verb ‘nafaqa-[i] نفق’ which mainly denotes an ‘exit,’ or ‘bringing something to an end.’  

The verb ‘anfaqa-أنفق’ means to spend, while ‘nafaqa-نفق’ means to die.
The noun ‘nafaq’ is an outlet or tunnel, while ‘nafqaa-نفقاء ’ is the hidden exit to a rodent’s burrow, camouflaged from the outside.  When escaping, the rodent hits against it with its head, and exits. 

All these connotations combine to describe the Hypocrites.  They have exited the state of Faith and Reverence to God.  Their true beliefs burrow deep inside them, where no one can hold them accountable.  They are masters of quick escape from duty and responsibility, having camouflaged ‘exits’ everywhere.
Isn’t Arabic beautiful?

PAGE 200 Arabic Qur’an.

5.  Verse 80 mentions their ‘fisq- فسق’ Breach of Faith, and tells the Prophet that they will never be forgiven, even if he prayed for them 70 times.
Verses 81-82 describe the feelings and conversations of those who lagged behind during the Battle of Tabuk, and warn them of the consequences.
6.   Verse 83 excludes those who lagged behind, bars them, from ever traveling with the Prophet or joining his army.
Verse 84, as we said earlier, shows that the Prophet, peace upon him, UNTIL the revelation of this verse, had attended their burial when they died, and prayed for their souls.  But not any more.
At this point he was given information of who the Hypocrites were, after which he never attended a burial nor prayed for the departed soul of a Hypocrite, again.
Verse 85 is a repetition of verse 55.

Enough said!
Our next Reading is from HQ 9: 86-99.

Peace unto all!

[i] (نفق) ، يدلُّ على انقطاعِ شيءٍ وذَهابه، وإخفاءِ شيءٍ وإغماضِه.
فالأوَّل: نَفَقَت الدّابةُ نُفوقاً: ماتت، ونفَق الشيءُ: فني. ونَفَق السِّعر نَفَاقاً، وذلك أنَّه يمضي فلا يَكْسُد ولا يَقِف. وأنْفَقوا: نَفَقت سُوقُهم. والنَّفَقة لأنَّها تمضي لوجهها. وأنْفَق الرّجُل: افتَقَر، أي ذهب ما عِندَه. قال ابنُ الأعرابي: ومنه قوله تعالى: {إذاً لأَمْسَكْتُمْ خَشْيَةَ الإنْفَاقِ} [الإسراء 100].
الآخر النَّفَق: سَرَبٌ في الأرض لـه مَخْلَصٌ إلى مكان. والنَّافقاء: موضِعٌ يرقِّقه اليَربوعُ من جُحْرِه فإذا أُتِيَ من قِبَل القاصعاء ضَرَب النَّافقاءَ برأسه فانتفَقَ، أي خرج. ومنه اشتقاق النِّفاق، لأن صاحبَه يكتُم خلافَ ما يُظهِر، فكأن الإيمان يَخرُج منه، أو يخرج هو من الإيمانِ في خفاء. ويمكن أنَّ الأصلَ في الباب واحد، وهو الخُرُوجُ. والنَّفَق: المَسلك النَّافذ الذي يُمكن الخروجُ منه.

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