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Thursday, December 30, 2010

Day 290; Qur’an 83: 1-36 page 587-588

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter..
Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.

سورة المطففين
'The Fraudulent/ Those who give short measure (i)’
From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:
"This Surah is close in time to the last one and the next one.
It condemns all fraud-in daily dealings, as well as and especially in matters of religious and higher spiritual life (ii)."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"MANY AUTHORITIES - among them Suyuti - regard this surah as the last Meccan revelation. However, a number of authentic Traditions make it clear that at least the first four verses were revealed shortly after the Prophet's arrival at Medina (cf. Tabari, Baghawi, Ibn Kathir): some commentators go even further and ascribe the whole of the surah to the Medina period.....Thus, the surah as a whole stands - like surah 29 (Al-Ankabut) - on the threshold between these two periods.."


This does seem to be a 'Meccan' chapter in subject-matter.
I think that it might have been dubbed 'Medeni' for political reasons (a reportiii attributed to Ibn Abbas -a Meccan of course- has him saying that 'when the Prophet emigrated to Medina there was no one who cheated as much as they did, so God revealed this verse and they stopped...' ).
I think there always are people who cheat... and that this applied then to many, as it does today.

PAGE 587 Arabic Qur’an
1.   This Chapter begins with the announcement:
'Wail to Those Who Defraud!'
New Readers: Please put 'wail' in 'Search.'
Verses 2-3 elaborate on the underhandedness of such people's dealings, when they mete out to others unjustly, giving them less -and taking more- than they should for themselves.
Here we notice the word 'waffa' which is about 'rendering something in full' -something they are reproached for NOT doing, and 'khasara' which is about causing 'loss' to someone - which they are reproached for doing.

Verses 4-6 ask a rhetoric question:
'Don't such persons believe that they shall be resurrected
To a MIGHTY 'Day/ Event'
A 'Day' when (all) Cognizant Humans shall 'rise upright/ yaqoom' to the Lord of all Peoples/ the Worlds'...?'
Here we notice the link between this verse -telling Cognizant Humans of our final 'rising upright/ qiyaam' TO FACE ACCOUNTABILITY, and another, which tells Cognizant Humans to 'rise upright/ qiyaam' in life TO FACE RESPONSIBILITY IN OUR JUST DEALINGS WITH EACH OTHER -as directed by God's Messengers, the Evidence they brought, the Compilation, and the Scale/ Criterion (see HQ 57:25)!
Indeed, only these two verses in the Qur'an mention the collective 'qiyaam' of all Cognizant Humans: Once to responsibility, and once to Accountability ...!
IMPORTANT: Please read Qur’an 42: 17- 31, page 485-486.
    PAGE 588 Arabic Qur’an
  1. Verses 7- 17 are of dire dissuasion. First, they announce that the collective compilation of the 'Fujjaar' (Those who erupt in Violence) is in 'Confinement/ sijjeen.' Then they ask whether the listener would be able to determine what 'sijjeen' is....? Then, the question is answered: It is an inscribed Compilation (رقم- which BINDS the person to his deeds and their consequence).
    After the first 'bewailment,' Verse 10 bewails 'Those who Bely the Day/ Time of Accountability/ Deen (iv)' adding in Verses 11-13 that this is something which none but 'an aggressive hinderer' would do: Even as God's Signs are successively presented to him, he calls them 'ancestral stories.'
    Verses 14-15 give us some interesting information:
    Our hearts/ minds are affected by the nature of our earnings (as per our deeds). The persons who were called 'aggressive hinderers' -whose deeds were abusive and corruptive- they had earned the same for themselves even in life... such negative qualities which overcame their hearts/ minds, with the end-result that on 'Judgment Day,' they shall be barred from their Lord (blocked by a barrier/Hijaab,' created by their own deeds).
    Doesn't this remind us of Prophet Abraham, peace upon him, who in his beautiful prayer had said that 'neither wealth nor kin will do anyone any good unless one approaches God with a sound heart/ mind' (HQ 26:89)? And then the Qur'an told us that this WAS indeed how Abraham HAD come to (v) his Lord (HQ 37:84); it's all about the state of Heart/ Mind.. !!!
    I found it interesting to see how our three Commentators translated the word 'maHjoob' (from root-verb 'Hajaba'):
    M. Asad: 'debarred.'
    Y. Ali: 'veiled.'
    L. Bakhtiar: 'alienated.'
    Verses 16-17 end the verses of Dissuasion by 'attaching' these persons to the 'Scalding Blaze/ JaHeem,' while telling them that this is exactly what they had been belying/ calling 'false'...!
  2. After dire dissuasion comes persuasion, as Verses 18- 28 tell us that the collective compilation of the 'Abraar/ the Forthcoming,' is in 'Elevation/ Illiyyeen' (as opposed to the collective compilation of the 'Fujjaar' being in 'Confinement/ sijjeen.' See footnote (vi) to recall why it's 'collective'). The verse then asks whether the listener would be able to determine what 'illiyyoon' is, and the question is answered: It is an inscribed Compilation (رقم- which BINDS the person to his deeds and their consequence). This scene continues, in beautiful opposition to the dire one, with even more good news for the 'Abraar' when it indicates that their Compilation (which we just heard was in 'Elevation') shall also be witnessed by 'Those Brought close/ Muqarrab'..! (We'd spoken of earlier of them; they are a group made up of the Prophets, the elite Custodians/ Angels, and the Forerunners/ 'Saabiqoon' among the Faithful.)
    We are then shown those who are 'Abraar/ Forthcoming' in a scene of Bliss, (reclining) on couches (of luxury vii), in anticipation... offered the best of 'sealed' libations to drink; its 'khitaam/ sealed/ conclusive'viii aftertaste is (fragrant & exquisite) 'musk,' and to that (conclusion) let the Competitors competeيتنافسix!
    Regular Readers will remember that the Qur'an has often spoken of 'hastening' in Goodness (see the command here and 3 other instances here), and also 'racing' towards good deeds (see 6 instances here, and 2 here), but this is the ONLY time it mentions competing..! So, life IS a competition... and we do compete with each other for the best of every single thing in life... yet we tend to forget the most important competition of all:
    Competing in Good Deeds.
    This scene ends on a note of exhilaration, telling us that the (drink) 'blend' is of 'Tasneem/ Heightening/ Rising,' from a spring which seems to be reserved for 'Those brought close/ Muqarrab,' to drink from (and it seems that each sip brings heightened delight..).
  3. Verses 29- 32 take us on a 'Flashback to 'Life,' telling us how the 'Mujrim/ Evil-earners' (who had 'extracted themselves from faith') used to treat Those who had attained Faith: They laughed at them. They exchanged rude gestures/ winks (x) whenever 'Those who attained Faith' passed by, and when they returned to their families, they did so cheerfully (xi), and whenever they saw them they'd say 'These are indeed the misguided.' And they were never sent as 'caretakers' over Those who Had Attained Faith (to watch over them and set them on the right path. See M. Asad's explanation of this).
  4. Verses 35- 36 take us again 'fast-forward' (to final recompense), when 'Those who had attained Faith' get the last laugh. From their blissful surroundings, they see that the Deniers have earned recompense for every single deed they had been committing... (xii)!!
Peace unto all!

طف: يدلُّ على قِلّةِ الشيء. يقال: هذا شيءٌ طفيف. ويقال: إِناءٌ طَفَّانُ، أي ملآن. والتَّطْفِيف: نقص المكيال والميزان. قال بعض أهل العلم: إِنّما سمِّي بذلك لأنَّ الذي ينقصه منه يكون طفيفاً. ويقال لِمَا فوق الإِناء الطَِّفَاف والطُّفافة. فأمَّا قولهم: طفّفت بفلانٍ موضعَ كذا، أي رفعتُهُ إليه وحاذيته. وفي الحديث: "طَفَّفَ بي الفرسُ مسجدَ بني فلان" فإنَّه يريد وثَب حتى كاد يساوي المسجد ـ فهذا على معنى التشبيه بطَفاف الإناء وطَفافته. والقياس واحد.
"Fraud" must here be taken in a widely general sense. It covers giving short measure or shortweight, but it covers much more than that.
The next two verses make it clear that it is the spirit of injustice that is condemned, giving too little and asking too much.
This may be shown in commercial dealings, where a man exacts a higher standard in his own favour than he is willing to concede as against him.
In domestic or social matters an individual or group may ask for honour, or respect, or services which he or they are not willing to give on their side in similar circumstances. It is worse than one-sided selfishness: for it is double injustice. But it is worst of all in religion or spiritual life: with what face can a man ask for Mercy or Love from God when he is unwilling to give it to his fellow-men?
In one aspect this is a statement of:
'Do as you would be done by.'
But it is more completely expressed. You must give in full what it due from you, whether you expect or wish to receive full consideration from the other side or not."

عن ابن عباس، قال: لما قَدم النبيّ صلى الله عليه وسلم المدينة كانوا من أخبث الناس كيلاً، فأنزل الله: { وَيْلٌ لِلْمُطَفِّفِينَ } فأحسنوا الكيل.

ivThis expression of bewailment is specific, used only for Those Who Belie (the 'Beliers/ al Mukath-thibeen'), who call God's Messengers 'liars' and God's Message 'a fabrication.' This expression appears in the Qur'an 12 times (ten of which are in ONE chapter).

Earlier, I'd mentioned the necessity of finding out the difference betweent the two words 'jaa-a' and 'ataa,' both of which mean to 'come/ bring,' but which are used distinctively in the Qur'an. It is worth noting that the Qur'an ALWAYS uses 'jaa-a/ جاء' as a past tense verb, while it uses 'ataa/ أتى' as a verb, not only in the past, present and future tenses, but also as other parts of speech. Our Lexicon tells us that 'jaa-a' describes something which 'comes/ is brought' with a certain amount of complexity involved,' while 'ataa' is about something 'coming/ being brought' with relative ease. This explains HQ 25: 33 so well, as it shows us the differenc between the insubstantial examples people might 'bring' and the substantive 'Truth and better explanation' which God brings.
وَلَا يَأْتُونَكَ بِمَثَلٍ إِلَّا جِئْنَاكَ بِالْحَقِّ وَأَحْسَنَ تَفْسِيرًا ﴿٣٣

*ما الفرق بين قوله تعالى (أَتَى أَمْرُ اللّهِ فَلاَ تَسْتَعْجِلُوهُ (1) النحل) وقوله (فَإِذَا جَاء أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قُضِيَ بِالْحَقِّ وَخَسِرَ هُنَالِكَ الْمُبْطِلُونَ (78) غافر) ؟
هناك لم يأت بعد (أَتَى أَمْرُ اللّهِفلا تستعجلوه هو قَرُب، أتى يدل على الماضي أنه اقترب لم يصل بعد فلا تستعجلوه، (فَإِذَا جَاء أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قُضِيَ بِالْحَقِّ) هنا الأمر واقع لأن فيه قضاء وخسران أي المجيئين أثقل؟ (فَإِذَا جَاء أَمْرُ اللَّهِ قُضِيَ بِالْحَقِّ) أثقل، يصور مشهداً واقعاً أما في الآية الأولى لم يأت بعد ولم يقع بعد فمع الذي لم يأت بعد استعمل أتى ولما حصل ما وقع وما فيه من قضاء وخسران استعمل جاء. إذن الإتيان والمجيء بمعنى لكن الإتيان فيه سهولة ويسر أما المجيء ففيه صعوبة وشدة ويقولون السيل المار على وجهه يقال له أتيّ مرّ هكذا يأتي بدون حواجز لأنه سهل. (حَتَّى إِذَا أَتَوْا عَلَى وَادِي النَّمْلِ (17) النمل) ليس هنا حرب، (وَجَاؤُواْ أَبَاهُمْ عِشَاء يَبْكُونَ (16) يوسف) هذه فيها قتل. إذن هنالك فروق دلالية بين جميع كلمات العربية سوءا علمناها أو لم نعلمها. رأي الكثيرين من اللغويين قالوا ليس هناك ترادف في القرآن إلا إذا كانت أكثر من لغة (مثل مدية وسكين) ولا بد أن يكون هناك فارق.link 
أتو: يدلُّ على مجيء الشيء وإصحابِه وطاعَتِه. الأَتْو الاستقامة في السّير، يقال أتَا البعيرُ يأْتُو يقال ما أحسن أَتْوَ . قال الضّبيّ: يقال للسِّقاء إذا تمخّض قد جاء أتْوُهُ. الخليل: الإتاوة الخَراج.
أتي: تقول: أتاني فلانٌ إتْياناً وأَتْياً وأَتْيَةً وأَتْوَةً واحدة، ولا يقال إتيانةً واحدة إلا في اضطرارِ شاعر، وهو قبيح لأنّ المصادر كلها إذا جعلت واحدةً رُدّت إلى بناءِ فعلِها، وذلك إذا كان الفِعْل على فعل، فإذا دخلت في الفعل زياداتٌ فوقَ ذلك أُدخِلت فيها زياداتُها في الواحدة، كقولنا إقبالةً واحدة.
قال الخليل: آتَيت فلاناً على أمره مؤاتاةً، وهو حُسْن المطاوعة. ولا يقال واتَيْتَهُ إلا في لغة قبيحةٍ في اليمن. قال اللِّحيانيّ: ما أتيتَنا حَتّى استأتيناك، أي استبْطَأناك وسألناكَ الإتيان. ويقال تأتَّ لهذا الأمر، أي ترفَّقْ له. والإيتاء الإعطاء، تقول آتى يؤتي إيتاء. وتقول هاتِ بمعنى آتِ أي فاعِلْ، فدخلت الهاء على الألف. وتقول تأتىّ لفلانٍ أمرُه، وقد أتّاه الله تأْتيةً
قال الخليل: الأتيّ ما وقع في النّهر من خشبٍ أوْ وَرَق ممّا يَحبِس الماء. تقول أَتِّ لهذا الماء أي سهّل جَرْيَهُ. والأتِيّ عند العامة: النهر الذي يجري فيه الماء إلى الحوض، والجمع الأُتِيُّ والآتاءُ. والأَتِيُّ أيضاً: السَّيل الذي يأتي من بلدٍ غيرِ بلدك.
قال بعضهم: أراد أتِيّ النُّؤى، وهو مَجراهُ، ويقال عَنَى به ما يحبِس المجرى من ورقٍ أو حشيش. وأتْيت للماء تأتيةً إذا وجَّهت له مَجْرىً. اللِّحيانيّ: رجل أَتِيٌّ إذا كان نافذاً. قال الخليل: رجلٌ أتيٌّ، أي غريبٌ في قومٍ ليس منهم. وأَتاوِيٌّ كذلك
وفي حديث ثابت بن الدّحْدَاح: "إنما هو أتِيٌّ فينا". والإتاء: نَماء الزّرع والنخل. يقال نخلٌ ذو إتاءٍ أي نماء. قال الفرّاء: أتَتِ الأرضُ والنخلُ أتْواً، وأتى الماءُ إتاءً، أي كثُر.

جيأ: يقال جاء يجيء مجيئاً. ويقال جاءاني فجِئْتُه، أي غالبني بكثْرة المجيء [فغلبته. والجَيْئَة: مصدر جاء. والجِئَةُ: مجتمع الماء حَوَالي الحِصْنِ وغيره. ويقال هي جيئة بالكسر والتثقيل.

    Regular Readers will recall what we spoke of earlier, when we said that each of us will find ourselves in the Hereafter with people whose direction was just like ours, regardless of how we tried to label ourselves in life.  This is an unpleasant surprise, especially if we tended to identify ourselves with what seems best, while following in our actual direction what seemed ‘cool’ or ‘popular.’  The problem is that, as part of any ‘ummah' of 'significant others,' we’d be sharing a collective compilation (other than our own individual one) which records our combined deeds and their impact… Hence the two opposite groups, each with a single compilation:  the ‘kitaab’ of ‘fujjaar,’ the group of ‘Destructive persons,’ and the ‘kitaab’ of ‘abraar,’ the group of ‘Forthcoming persons’ (HQ 83:7, 18).
    Now we can better understand the picture in the Hereafter when the Hour arises, and all shall be lost to Those who considered the Hereafter ‘null and void.’  When EVERY ‘ummah’ or ‘multitude of singular direction’ will be ‘huddling’ ‘jaathiyah’ in apprehension… each called to ITS OWN COMPILATION, and recompensed according to what good or ill each had collectively accomplished.

(أرك: أصلان عنهما يتفرّع المسائل، أحدهما شجر، والآخر الإقامة.
فالأول الأراك وهو شجرٌ معروف.
*حدثنا ابن السُّنّيّ عن ابن مسبّح، عن أبي حنيفة أحمد بن داود قال: الواحد من الأرَاك أرَاكَة
قال أبو عمرو: ويقال للإبل التي تأكل الأراك أرَاكِيّةٌ وأوَارك. وفي الحديث "أن النبي صلى الله عليه  وسلم أُتِيَ بعرَفَةَ بلبَنِ إبلٍ أَوَارِكَ". وأرضٌ أرِكَةٌ كثيرة الأرك. ويقال للإبل التي ترعى الأرَاك أرِكَةٌ أيضاً، كقولك حامض من الحمْضِ.
والأصل الثاني الإقامة. حدّثني ابن السُّنّيّ عن ابن مُسَبِّح عن أبي حنيفة قال: جَعَل الكسائيُّ الإبل الأَرَاكِيّةَ من الأُرُوك وهو الإقامة. قال أبو حنيفة: وليس هذا مأخوذاً من لفظ الأرَاكِ، ولا دالاًّ على أنها مُقيمةٌ في الأراك خاصّة، بل هذا لكلِّ شيءٍ، حتى في مُقام الرّجُل في بيته، يقال منه أرَكَ يأْرِكُ ويَأرُكُ أُرُوكاً.
والدليل على صحَّة ما قاله أبو حنيفة تسميتهم السَّرير في الحجَلة أرِيكةً، والجمع أرائك.
ختم:  هو بُلوغ آخِرِ الشّيء. يقال خَتَمْتُ العَمَل، وخَتم القارئ السُّورة. فأمَّا الخَتْم، وهو الطَّبع على الشَّيء، فذلك من الباب أيضاً؛ لأنّ الطَّبْع على الشيءِ لا يكون إلاّ بعد بلوغ آخِرِه، في الأحراز. والخاتَم مشتقٌّ منه؛ لأنّ به يُختَم. ويقال الخاتِمُ، والخاتام، والخَيْتام.
  والنبي صلى الله عليه وسلم خاتَِمُ الأنبياء؛ لأنّه آخِرُهم. وخِتام كلِّ مشروبٍ: آخِرُه. قال الله تعالى: {خِتَامُهُ مِسْكٌ} [المطففين 26]، أي إنّ آخرَ ما يجِدونه منه عند شُربهم إياه رائِحَةُ المسك.

معجم المقاييس:
نفس:  يدلُّ على خُروج النَّسيم كيف كان، من ريح أو غيرها، وإليه يرجعُ فروعه.
منه التَّنَفُّس: خُروج النَّسِيم من الجوف. ونَفَّسَ الله كُربَته، وذلك أنَّ في خُروج النَّسيم رَوْحاً وراحةً*. والنَّفَس: كلُّ شيءٍ يفرَّجُ به عن مكروب. والنَّفْس: الدَّم، وهو صحيح، وذلك أنَّه إذا فُقِد الدّمُ من بَدَنِ الإنسان فَقَدَ نَفْسَه. والحائض تسمَّى النُّفَساءَ لخرُوج دَمِها. والنِّفاس: وِلادُ المرأة، فإذا وَضَعت فهي نُفَساء. ويقال: ورِثْتُ هذا قبل أن يُنْفَسَ فلانٌ، أي يولَد. والولدُ منفوس. والنِّفاس أيضاً: جمع نُفَساء. ويقال: كرَعَ في الإناء نَفَساً أو نَفَسَيْن. ويقال: للماء نَفَسٌ، وهذا على تسميته الشَّيء باسم غيرِه، ولأنَّ قِوام النَّفس به. والنَّفسُ قِوامُها بالنَّفَس.
وشيءٌ نفيس، أي ذو نفس وخَطَر يُتنافَسُ به. والتّنافُس: أن يُبرِزَ كلُّ واحد من المتبارزَين قوَّةَ نَفْسه.
والتنافس: أن ينَفِس الرجل على الرجل بالشيء يكون له، ويتمنى أن يكون له دونه، وهو مأخوذ من الشيء النفيس، وهو الذي تحرص عليه نفوس الناس، وتطلبه وتشتهيه، وكان معناه في ذلك: فليجدّ الناس فيه، وإليه فليستبقوا في طلبه، ولتحرص عليه نفوسهم.
غمز: وهو كالنَّخْس في الشيء بشيء، ثم يُستعار. من ذلك: غَمَزْتُ الشَّيءَ بيدي غمزاً. ثم يقال: غمزَ، إذا عاب وذَكَر بغير الجميل. والمَغَامز: المعايب. وفي عقل فلانٍ غَمِيزةٌ، كأنَّه يُستضعَف. وممّا يستعار: غَمَزَ بجفنه: أشار. ومنه: غَمَزَ الدابةُ من رجله، كأنّه يغمز الأرضَ برجله.
Notice how the root-verb 'fakaha' is related to the word we understand as 'fruit.' See all its occurrences in the Qur'an.
Notice the label 'Deniers.' We know that we are talking of every single part of every single deed because the word used is fa'ala/ فعل, rather than 'amala/ عمل - put words in 'Search'...!!

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