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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Sunday, November 14, 2010

Day 244; Qur’an 43:45-73, page 493-494

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan
Can we complete this endeavor by the end of the year?  Only God knows…
Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter.  
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

PAGE 493 Arabic Qur’an.

1.   Our last Reading ended with reference to the Qur’an in a direct address to the Messenger, peace upon him, stating that ‘it is indeed a Reminder to you and to your people, and you shall all surely be questioned.’  

وَإِنَّهُ لَذِكْرٌ‌ لَّكَ وَلِقَوْمِكَ وَسَوْفَ تُسْأَلُونَ ﴿٤٤

Today’s Reading continues, with a call to the Prophet (and listeners) to examine previous Messages sent by God and ascertain that at no time was any deity to be worshipped other than The Unique Creator/ Al Rahmaan (see Yusuf Ali’s explanation of Verse 45). 

Then, Verses 46-56 mention Prophet Moses’ story, peace upon him, with Pharaoh and his people.  Here we learn that God sent them signs, each greater than the other, and that they asked Moses (calling him ‘sorcerer’) to ask ‘his Lord’ for respite, after which they promised to follow his guidance…. but they reneged on that.

Notice the arrogance of tyrants who –as a last resort- contrast themselves in wealth and power to those ‘subordinate’ to them, considering that wealth a sign of worthiness to be obeyed.  Notice that Pharaoh takes his people lightly; he literally ‘puts them down’ by emphasizing his ‘assets’ in contrast to Moses, and expecting them to see material wealth as a sign of God’s grace.  Unfortunately for them, they do obey him. 

This is not simply about people’s blind obedience to wealth and power:  Until we understand the mentality of tyrants and their subjects, it will be difficult for us to imagine how all the great signs presented by Moses were not enough. 

Pharaoh goes on to fault Moses for (what may have been) a speech impediment, and also for not receiving (from his Lord) a ‘gold band[i]’ to indicate his leadership, and for not being accompanied, equally ranked, by custodians/angels.

We read of their end in verses 55-56, and learn that their story is considered ‘an example to those of later generations,’ which includes Quraish, as Muhammad Asad reminds us:

 This is apparently an echo of the pagan objection to Muhammad, mentioned in verse 31 above: “Why was not this Qur’ān bestowed from on high on some great man of the two cities?” The same is the case with the subsequent reference to the “absence of angels.”  
Dear Reader: WE are of later generations too, and these stories teach US so much.    

2.  Verses 57-58 address the Messenger/ listeners, telling us that when the Son of Mary was drawn as an example, there was an outcry (of refusal and scorn) among ‘your people’ (Quraish).  It seems that Quraish had gotten into this argument for argument’s sake, citing their ‘gods’ as better (than Jesus).   
See Yusuf Ali’s note.

In Verses 59-60 it is pointed out that the Son of Mary is none other than a Worshipper whom God had graced (with Prophethood) and rendered as an example to Bani Isra-eel… and that, had God permitted, He would have rendered, from among humans, a succession of custodians/angels.

PAGE 494 Arabic Qur’an.
3. In Verses 61-62 the Messenger is given a direct address to his people, announcing that IT (the occurrence of custodian/angels appearing in succession on earth OR the Qur’an) is indeed ‘knowledge of/ signal of’ the Hour, which they should not doubt.  He also invites them to ‘follow me, THIS is a Straightened Path,’ and warns them of the Deviant/ Sheytaan.
(New Readers:   Please put any word in ‘Search this Site.’)

Verse 61starts with the word ‘innahu’ which could mean ‘IT is’ or ‘HE is.’  Scholars have put forward varying interpretations, with some considering ‘it’ to be indicative of the Qur’an[ii], while others considering ‘he’ indicative of Jesus (see Ali/ Asad).

I am inclined towards ‘it’ rather than ‘he,’ the pronoun ‘it’ being either reference to the latest mentioned topic, which is the appearance of successive custodian/angels, OR referring to the Qur’an, as in our above Verse 44:  “… IT is indeed a Reminder to you and to your people..”… (also similar to HQ 26:192, 196).

Knowledge of the Hour rests with God Alone, as the Qur’an indeed informs us. 

يَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ السَّاعَةِ أَيَّانَ مُرْ‌سَاهَا ﴿٤٢ فِيمَ أَنتَ مِن ذِكْرَ‌اهَا ﴿٤٣ إِلَىٰ رَ‌بِّكَ مُنتَهَاهَا ﴿٤٤
إِنَّمَا أَنتَ مُنذِرُ‌ مَن يَخْشَاهَا ﴿٤٥

“(41) THEY ASK thee about the Hour: "When will it come to pass?" (42) How couldst thou tell anything about it, (43) With thy Lord rests the beginning and the end thereof? (44) Thou art but [sent] to warn those who stand in awe of it.”

4.   In Verses 63- 64 we listen to the beautiful words of Jesus, who ends by telling his people that God is indeed his Lord and their Lord, asking them to worship God Alone, and indicating that this is a Straightened Path. 

We read something similar in an earlier post with regard to HQ 19: 36-37, where we also explained the word ‘wail’:

وَإِنَّ اللَّـهَ رَ‌بِّي وَرَ‌بُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ هَـٰذَا صِرَ‌اطٌ مُّسْتَقِيمٌ ﴿٣٦
 فَاخْتَلَفَ الْأَحْزَابُ مِن بَيْنِهِمْ فَوَيْلٌ لِّلَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا مِن مَّشْهَدِ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ ﴿٣٧

Furthermore, a simple search shows us that the words God is ‘my Lord and your Lord’ (rabbi wa rabbukum) appear 8 times in the Qur’an, said by these prophets peace upon them all:

·        Prophet Moses (twice).
·        Prophet Hud (once).
·        Prophet Jesus (FIVE times).

The latter is very significant.

5. Verses 65- 67 ask a rhetorical question of those who dispute among themselves:  (As if to exclaim: ‘What are you waiting for?’… the verse asks…)..  Do they await the sudden advent of the Hour, when all intimate friends –except the Aware- will become enemies of each other?

6.    Then comes a beautiful turn towards the Aware, addressing them directly:
Verse 68 addresses ‘al muttaqeen’- calling them ‘My Worshippers’ and assuring them that, on that Day, there shall be no fear upon them nor shall they grieve.
(May we be among them! Who are these fortunate people? )

Verse 69 presents us with their characteristics: 
They believed in God’s Signs and were Purely Reverent/ ‘Muslimeen.’

New Readers: Put ‘Purely Reverent’ in ‘Search this Site.’

7.   Finally, Verses 70-73 present the Aware/ ‘Muttaqeen,’ with a most welcoming scene in the Hereafter:  They are invited to enter the Garden/ Jannah, together with their 'mates/ companions/ like' …. to partake- in ‘complete and obvious joy[iii] - all what hearts desire, and all that pleases the eyes, to remain ‘snug’ and ‘firm’ therein.  See Ali’s beautiful explanation.
(Remember that the verb ‘khalada’ denotes 'inclined to’ something, 'stuck fast' in it so that it fits, like a 'khuld' or a mole, snug in the ground -put خلد in 'Search this Site').

The final verse in today’s Reading informs the dwellers of the Garden that they shall have many fruits therein, of which they shall eat.  Notice that this came after saying that THEY ACTUALLY EARNED ALL THIS, BY WHAT THEY ‘HAD BEEN WORKING/ DOING’ (in Life!).

This reminds us of the magnificent account we read earlier regarding the physical manifestations of our Earth, and the changes it undergoes as it fulfills its final stage of ‘life as we know it’…. culminating in HQ 39:70 which said:

  “And to each Self will be delivered the sum total of its work, and He Knows best (every part of) what they were doing/committing.

(See both HQ 3:25 & 39:70.)

So, although it is God’s Mercy which enters people into the Garden, it is by their deeds that they become deserving of it, as in HQ 16:32.

Enough said!
Our next Reading is from HQ 43:74-89, 44:1-16… a new Chapter!

Peace unto all!

The word ‘surah’ which is usually translated as a ‘chapter’ of the Qur’an, comes from the same root-verb ‘sawara,’ which means ‘elevated,’ or  [i]high in esteem.’
معجم المقاييس في اللغة:
سور: أصلٌ واحد يدلُّ على علوٍّ وارتفاع. من ذلك  سَار يَسُور إذا غضب وثار. وإنَّ لغضبِهِ لَسَورةً. والسُّور: جمع سُورة، وهي كلُّ منْزلةٍ من البناء.

الراغب الأصفهاني:
وإلقاء الأسورة كناية عن إلقاء مقاليد الملك، أي: أسبابه التي هي كالمفاتيح له.
وكانوا إذا سودوا رجلا سوروه وطوقوه بطوق من ذهب علما على رئاسته، ودلالة لسيادته. والسورة: المنزلة الرفيعة.
[ii] Zamakhshari lists varying interpretations, including that of ‘Hassan ‘saying:  “The pronoun refers to the Qur’an.  It is the Qur’an by which the Hour is known, and within it is report of it.”
وعن الحسن: أن الضمير للقرآن، وأن القرآن به تعلم الساعة، لأن فيه الإعلان بها
  حبر: أصلٌ واحد منقاسٌ مطّرد، وهو الأَثرُ في حُسْنٍ وبَهاء. فالحَبَار: الأثَر.
ثم يتشعَّب هذا فيُقال للذي يُكتَب به حِبرٌ، وللذي يَكتُب بالحبر حِبرٌ وحَبرٌ، وهو العالِم، وجمعه أحبار. والحَبْر: الجمال والبهاء. ويقال ذو حَبْرٍ وسِبْرٍ. وفي الحديث: "يخرج من النار رجلٌ قد ذَهب حَبْرُه وسَبْرُه والمُحَبَّر: الشيء المزَيَّن. وكان يقال لطُفيلٍ الغنويِّ محبِّر؛ لأنه كان يحبّر الشعر ويزيِّنه.
والحَبْرَةُ: الفرح. قال الله تعالى: {فَهُمْ فِي رَوْضَةٍ يُحْبَرُونَ} [الروم 15]، ويقال قِدْحٌ مُحبَّر، أجيد بَرْيُه. وأرضٌ مِحبارٌ: سريعة النبات. والحَبِير من السحاب: الكثير الماء.
ومنه الحُبارى، وهي من أذَلّ الطير.

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