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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Thursday, January 20, 2011

Day 311; Qur’an 106; 107; 108

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Page 602 Arabic Qur’an

سورة قريش

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:
"This Makkan Surah may well be considered as a pendant to the last. If the Quraysh were fond of Makkah and proud of it, if they profited, by its central position and its guaranteed security, from their caravans of trade and commerce, let them be grateful, adore the One True God, and accept His Message."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"ACCORDING to some of the Companions of the Prophet and several learned men of the next generation, this surah and the preceding one form, in fact, one entity. Thus, in the Qur'an-copy owned by Ubayy ibn Ka'b, AlFil and Quraysh were written as one surah, i.e., without the customary invocation "In the name of God" intervening between them (Baghawi and Zamakhshari). We must remember that side by side with Zayd ibn Thabit and Ali ibn Abi Talib, Ubayy ibn Ka'b was one of the foremost authorities on whom both Abu Bakr and Uthman relied for the final recension of the text of the Qur'an; and it is probably for this reason that Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani regards the evidence of Ubayy's Qur'an-copy as fairly conclusive (Fath al-Bari VIII, 593). Moreover, it is established that, when leading the congregational prayer, Umar ibn al-Khattab used to recite the two surahs as one (Zamakhshari and Razi). But whether Al-Fil and Quraysh are one surah or two separate ones, there is hardly any doubt that the latter is a continuation of the former, implying that God destroyed the Army of the Elephant "so that the Quraysh might remain secure."


I found it interesting that this Chapter was considered by some to be a continuation of the previous one (reported to have appeared in the compilation of a companion of the Prophet -peace upon him- WITHOUT the separating 'Bismil-Lah;' see Asad above). The only way to know for sure is through numeric research, which I am not qualified to conduct, but I do know that:
Every word in the Qur'an has its weight, and forms part of its magnificent whole. Every word -and every letter to every word- is part of the intricate numeric design which runs through the entire Qur'an (i). Therefore 'Bismil-Lah' -with its 19 letters- could be found to either fit perfectly, or not fit at all: Numeric research will give us the definitive answer.

This Chapter is a reminder to Qureish of God's great bounty to them:
It begins by drawing attention to their 'ilaaf,' their congregation & fellowship' (see root verb 'alafa/ ألف in Qur'an with all its variations -ii). This seems to hint either at this camaraderie being a rarity of the times, or at its coming after prior animosity and division. Their fellowhip and cooperation is manifested by the twice-yearly trade journeys they embarked on every winter and summer, bringing them much benefit. Although the benefit may seem financial, the true benefit lies in the state of security which enables people to capitalize on gathered wealth and knowledge.

Interesting notes:
This is the only time the word 'Qureish' is mentioned in the Qur'an; the root-verb 'qarasha' is about earning money; literally 'accumulating money' – see footnoteقرش (iii) and also note how English Etymology ALWAYS ignores Arabic lingistic origins, and refers words to other -often far-fetched- sources.

The main gist of this Chapter is made clear by the term 'li/ FOR:

FOR (reason of) the 'ilaaf' of Qureish and their thriving trade, THEY ARE TO WORSHIP THE LORD OF THIS HOUSE, Who fed them against hunger, and granted them safety against fear. This is a call to them, to renounce the hundreds of idols they'd planted around this 'House' (the Ka'ba), and to worship the Lord of this House which they claim ownership to. The Qur'an often indicates that their idols can neither help nor harm them in any way, showing them the absurdity of worshipping such objects instead of God Almighty.

It logically follows that He Who granted them all that, can take it away anytime... which is what happened to those of them who did not heed the call.

Is this Chapter a lesson to similar 'qureish' peoples of today?
When people who have 'quroosh' (wealth) attempt 'ilaaf' (friendly inter-relations with others), and then create channels of mutual benefit... don't they guard themselves and their children against the fears of hunger and war?
We need to learn more about other cultures, and understand them. That is how we can understand ourselves better, and realize how similar we all are. That is the truth, and anyone who has led a multi-cultural life would agree.

Note that Hunger and Fear appearing together are Humanity's WORST predicament, mentioned in three verses of the Qur'an.

Look around you.
Think about it.

Peace unto all!

سورة الماعون
'The Assistance/ Relief
From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

"This Surah---at least the first half of it---belongs to the early Makkan period. The subject is the meaning of true worship, which requires Faith, the practical and helpful love of those in need, and sincerity rather than show in devotion and charity."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"THE NAME of this surah, which was revealed in the early years of the Prophet's mission (probably after surah 102), is derived from the word al-ma'un occurring in the last verse. The view of some commentators that verses 4-7 were revealed at Medina lacks all historical or textual evidence and may, therefore, be disregarded."


This Chapter gives us a clear DEFINITION of ACCOUNTABILITY/ DEEN.

As Regular Readers already know (iv), 'Deen' in Arabic is NOT 'religion.' (It is NOT that divisive, 'man-made' concept we know as 'religion,' erroneously translated by modern-day Arabs as 'deen.' New Readers: Put words in 'Search.')

In this Chapter is the definition:


Which is why:
A LACK OF COMMITMENT to social responsibility = Belying Accountability.

'Belying' Accountability means denying certain social responsibilities and calling them: 'False.' We spoke of this concept extensively when we came across it earlier in the Qur'an, in HQ 82:9, 95.
Now here it appears for the last time, in 107:1.... so well-defined.
    'Do you see him who belies in Accountability?
    That is the one who pushes/ thrusts away (دع v) the orphan,
    and does not urge the feeding of the helpless indigent.'

We were often warned against these two FAILINGS:
  • Failing to be gracious to the Orphan (HQ 89:17, 93:9, 107:2).
  • Failing to urge the feeding of the Helpless (HQ 69:34, 89:18, 107:3).
But here, there is something else which we are warned against:

'Therefore, 'Wailing/ Woe' to the MuSalleen/ Those who are themselves (seemingly) maintaining Relationship/ Salaat.
Those who are themselves (in actual fact) oblivious of their Relationships/ Salaat.'

Are we being warned against being INCONSISTENT in these two major responsibilities? Remember the verses HQ 70: 22-26 which spoke of the need for us to maintain CONSISTENT ‘Relationship/ Salaat,' the past tense of the verb ‘salla’ being the opposite of ‘tawalla.’  Put words in ‘Search’). Inconsistency could be due to forgetfulness and needing reminders, OR due to choosing the times when one can gain approval... both reasons speaking volumes against such persons.
But these verses tell us more; let us read on:

'Those who are themselves showing off, and obstructing the Ma'oon/ Relief (process).'
These verses are warning listeners against pretending to maintain Relationship/ Salaat' because such pretense is WORSE than staying away and doing nothing. Why is it worse? Because when there is an obvious void, someone might jump in to fill it. Pretending to help is highly damaging and obstructive. It is a frustrating impediment, which stalls the entire social relief process; a process called 'maa'oon' from the root-verb 'ma'ana' (vi). Most people don't realize that Arabic nouns which follow the grammatical form of 'faa'ool/فاعول' generally refer to the 'instrument/ device/ means' by which that particular root-verb is carried out (for example 'faarooq' is the instrument by which the action of 'faraqa' is carried out). Here, the process of 'ma'oon' is impeded by people who merely pretend to help!

Earlier, we came across other verses (HQ 74: 42-47) which spoke of those who 'belied Accountability,' and described them as not bothering to help at allvii .

Some Commentators have explained Verses 4-5 as being limited to the actual ritual prayer/ Salaat despite the fact that the conjunctive 'ف- therefore' ties Verse 4 to the verses before it, even as the nature of this Salaat is further explained in Verses 6- 7.

May we be of true service to our society, maintaining Relationship/Salaat with God and Mankind in the best way possible.

Peace unto all!

سورة الكوثر

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

"This very brief early Makkan Surah sums up in the single mystic word kawthar (Abundance) the doctrine of spiritual Riches through devotion and sacrifice. The converse also follows: indulgence in hatred means the cutting off all hopes of this life and the Hereafter."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"WHEREAS most of the authorities assign this surah to the early part of the Mecca period, Ibn Kathir considers it most probable that it was revealed at Medina."


This Chapter, dear Readers, is about Thanksgiving.
It shows us how we should deal with success, calling on us to REFLECT on our life's work, and to SHARE with others when we achieve abundance /كثر(viii).

This is the shortest Chapter in the Qur'an, made up of only three verses.
I do agree that it must have been revealed in Medina, seeing that it speaks of 'Abundance/ kawthar' which 'you,' meaning the Messenger Muhammad, had ALREADY been given, and for which he is 'therefore' (ف) to offer two things in return. These two things are: 'Salaat' to his Lord and 'naHr.'
  • Although 'Salaat' is taken by many to refer to the actual ritual prayer, it is also about Supplication, which is the constant 'relationship' each of us renews with our Lord, at all times.
  • 'NaHr' is known to be the act of slaughtering cattle and distributing its meat to the poor نحر (ix).
    Some Commentators have explained these verses as being about the general observation of ritual prayer, the word 'naHr' referring to the part of the neck where one's hands should be raised to while saying 'Allahu Akbar,' or where the hands should be placed, right on top of left, right under the collar-bone.
    Others have said that these verses pertain in particular to the 'Eid/ Feast' of 'aDHa,' when people congregate in a special 'Eid' prayer, after which they 'sacrifice/ slaughter' cattle in commemoration of Prophet Abraham's ordeal (when he was commanded to sacrifice his only son, peace upon them both, and then relieved from that responsibility by being presented with a ram to slaughter instead).

I think that, regardless of how we might wish to 'apply' these verses to our lives today, what is obvious is the fact that:

They were directed to the Messenger, personally. It is to him that God gave 'Kawthar,' after which the commands (beginning by 'therefore etc..') apply to him, and he did apply them.

Notice that the final verse states:

'Indeed, your Detester is the one who is severed..!'

This must have been a later Chapter, revealed when the community achieved peace and prosperity, and when all who had fought against the Messenger, peace upon him, were defeated or rooted out.
These verses relate to a time of ease and victory.. a time of Plenty/ Kawthar... when gratitude is due to one's Rabb/ Lord Sustainer.

--Regular Readers will remember the definition of 'Rabb' as someone who not only has a just claim to possession and authority, but someone who has taken upon Himself the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing everything together, from inception to completion.
--We also remember the word شنئ (x) which appeared earlier in the Qur'an (HQ 5:2, 8), when we were told NOT to let our own resentment/ detestation of any people lead to aggression or injustice against them!

Back to our verses:
As it seems... now that everything was finally complete for the Messenger and his ordeal had ended... now was the time to offer gratitude by way of prayer/ supplication to his Lord AND by way of sharing this abundance with others. It was a time of celebration. And of course, it is natural for us to seek to apply such wisdom to our own lives:

Therefore, as soon as I am done with my research on the final two pages of the Qur'an (in the next week, God-willing) I too shall celebrate appropriately. I intend to offer prayers and sacrifice when I've completed this stage. God Alone knows how I finally got here; it is His Grace which helped me achieve this monumental task.

But there is another task which requires YOUR help, dear Reader.

As God is your witness.. how can you help get the word out about what the Arabic Qur'an REALLY says?

Think about this, and let me know.
May God bless our efforts at bringing peace to our troubled world.

Peace unto all!

Which is why, for example, the Arabic word 'siraaT' with a 'seen/س' was specifically asked by the Messenger Muhammad to be written 'SiraaT' with a 'Saadh'/ص ... which was an uncommon spelling.
Numeric research on the Qur'an gained ground with the advent of computers. Perhaps the most memorable (and now controversial) study was that of Rashad Khalifa in the 80's, with his emphasis on the number 19. Indeed, based on the significance given to this number in HQ 74:30, many DO consider it to be a 'divine code,' or at least, that the number 19 points to something of great significance... the beginning and the end.. God Himself, the One and Unique. (We spoke of this 'divine code' earlier. Put words in 'Search.')

Regular readers will remember the definition, which is 'to 'combine/ compose/ compound' one thing to another (as in HQ 8:63), and also denotes 'hundreds combined together,' which would also point to something in its 'thousands,' which is how we understand the word today.

"Noun. A monetary unit of Saudi Arabia, equal to one twentieth of a rial. Origin: from Arabic qirsh, from Slavic groš, via Old High German grosch from medieval Latin (denarius) grossus 'thick (penny)'. Compare with groschen."

معجم المقاييس
قرش: أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على الجمع والتجمُّع. فالقَرْش: الجمع، يقال تَقَرَّشُوا، إذا تجمَّعوا. ويقولون: إنَّ قُريشاً سمِّيت بذلك. والمُقَرِّشة: السَّنة المَحْل، لأنَّ النّاسَ يضمُّون مواشِيَهم. ويقال: تقارَشَت الرِّماح في الحَرْب، إذا تداخَلَ بعضُها في بعض. ويقولون: إنَّ قريشاً: دابَّةٌ تسكن البحر تغلبُ سائرَ الدَّوابّ. قال:
وقريشٌ هي التي تَسْكُن البحـ *** ـرَ بها سمِّيت قريشٌ قريشا
مختار الصحاح
ق ر ش : القَرْشُ الكسب والجمع .. وبه سميت قُريشُ وهي قبيلة ..

Deen’ means ‘Accountability/ standard of Accountability’ and does NOT mean ‘Religion.’  In fact, religion is about a certain ‘institution’ which has its own beliefs, rituals, and teachings. Being so, it can neither be universal, general, nor can it be it inclusive. To the contrary: Religion is quite EXclusive and is also divisive, which is why we now have so many ‘religions‘ (plural).  Note that in the oldest Arabic lexicon, the word ‘deen‘ had no plural, but today we have two plurals for it, 'dayanaat' and ‘adyaan.’  Furthermore, everyone knows that the 'Day/Time of Accountability' is called ‘yawm el Deen’ in Arabic, a term which can never be translated -or understood- as the Day of ‘religion.’

  دع: يدلُّ على حركة ودَفْع واضطراب. فالدَّعُّ: الدفع؛ يقال دَعَعْتُه أَدُعُّه دَعَّاً. قال الله تعالى: {يَوْمَ يُدَعُّونَ إلى نَارِ جهَنَّمَ دعّاً} [الطور 13]. والدَّعْدَعَةُ: تحريك المِكيال ليستوعب الشَّيءَ. والدَّعْدَعةُ: عَدْوٌ في التِواء. ويقال جَفْنةٌ مدَعدَعة. وأصلُه ذاك، أي أنَّها دُعدِعَتْ حتّى امتلأَتْ.
معجم المقاييس 
معن:  سهولةٍ في جريان أو جري أو غير ذلك. ومَعَن الماءُ: جَرَى. وماءٌ معينٌ. ومجارِي الماء في الوادي مُعْنانٌ، كذا قال أبو بكر. والمَعْنة: ماءٌ قليل يجري. ومن الباب أمعَنَ الفرسُ في عَدْوِه. وأمْعَنَ بحقِّي: ذهَبَ به. ورجل مَعْنٌ في حاجته: سَهْل. وأمعنت الأرضُ: رَوِيَتْ. وكلأ مَمْعونٌ: جَرَى فيه الماء. وقولهم للمنزل مَعَانٌ، وزنه فعَال، وجمعه مُعُنٌ. ومَعَن .الوادي: كثُر فيه الماء المَعين
مختار الصحاح
م ع ن :.. المَاعُون اسم جامع لمنافع البيت كالقدر والفأس ونحوهما والماعون أيضا الماء والماعون أيضا الطاعة وقوله تعالى { ويمنعون الماعون } قال أبو عبيدة الماعون في الجاهلية كل منفعة وعطية وفي الإسلام الطاعة والزكاة وقيل أصل الماعون معونة والألف عوض عن الهاء و أمْعَنَ الفرس تباعد في عدوه وماء مَعِينٌ أي جار وقيل هو مفعول من عِنْتُ الماء إذا استنبطته على ما سبق في ع ي ن

مَا سَلَكَكُمْ فِي سَقَرَ ﴿٤٢ قَالُوا لَمْ نَكُ مِنَ الْمُصَلِّينَ ﴿٤٣ وَلَمْ نَكُ نُطْعِمُ الْمِسْكِينَ ﴿٤٤ وَكُنَّا نَخُوضُ مَعَ الْخَائِضِينَ ﴿٤٥ وَكُنَّا نُكَذِّبُ بِيَوْمِ الدِّينِ ﴿٤٦ حَتَّىٰ أَتَانَا الْيَقِينُ﴿٤٧

كثر:  يدلُّ خِلاف القِلّة. من ذلك الشَّيء الكثير، وقد كَثُر. ثم يُزَاد فيه للزِّيادة في النّعت فيقال: الكوثر: الرّجلُ المِعطاء. وهو فَوْعلٌ من الكَثْرة.
والكَوثَر: نهرٌ في الجَنّة. قال الله تعالى: {إنَّا أعْطَينَاكَ الكَوثَرَ} [الكوثر 1] قالوا هذا وقالوا: أراد الخير الكثير.
ويقال: كاثَرَ بنو فلان [بني فلانٍ فكَثَرُوهم، أي كانوا أكثَرَ منهم. وعَدَدٌ كاثِرٌ، أي كثير. 

نحر:  كلمة واحدة يتفرّعُ منها كلماتُ الباب. هي النَّحْر للإنسانِ وغيره، والجمع نُحور. والنَّحْر: البَزْل في النَّحْر. ونَحَرتُ البعيرَ نَحْراً. والنَّاحِران: عِرْقان في صَدر الفَرَس. ودائرة النَّاحر تكون في الجران إلى أسفَلَ من ذلك. وانتَحَروا على الشَّيء: تشاحُّوا عليه حِرصاً، كأنَّ كلَّ واحدٍ منهم يريد نَحرَ صاحبِه. وأظن معنى يَنحره يَلِي نَحْرَه. والعالم بالشّيء المجرِّب نِحْرِير، وهو إن كان من القياس الذي ذكرناه، بمعنى أنّه ينحر العلمَ نحراً، كقولك: قَتلتُ هذا الشَّيءَ عِلْماً.

شنأ: يدلُّ على البِغضة والتجنُّب للشيء. من ذلك الشَّنُوءَة، وهي التقزُّز؛ ومنه اشتقاق أَزْدِشَنوءة. ويقال: شَنِئَ فُلانٌ فلاناً إِذا أَبغَضَه. وهو الشَّنَآن، وربما خَفَّفوا فقالوا: الشَّنَان
والشنْءُ: الشَّنَآن أيضاً. ورجلٌ مِشناءٌ على مِفعال، إِذا كان يُبْغِضُه النَّاسُ. وأمَّا قولهم شَنِئْت للأمر وبه، إِذا أَقرَرْت.

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