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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


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A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Friday, November 12, 2010

Day 242; Qur’an 43:1-20, page 489-490

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
I’ve missed you!  
(In 'real time' today is Sept 1st., 2011).
This ‘Blog’ was and still is a Piority… but when dependents need us… our dependents come before all else.
Please pray for me to be able to complete this endeavor by the end of this year (in which case I’d only be a year later than originally planned).

سورة الزخرف

From Yusuf Ali’s Introduction to this Chapter:
This is the fourth Surah of Ha Mim series of seven Surahs. This Surah deals with the contrasts between the real glory of Truth and Revelation and the false glitter of what people like to believe and worship. It cites the examples of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus, as exposing the False and holding up the truth. The keyword (Zukhruf, Gold Adornments) occurs in verse 38, but the idea occurs all through the Surah.

From Muhammad Asad’s Introduction to this Chapter:

DERIVING its title from the incidental mention of the word zukhruf in verse 35, this surah is almost entirely devoted to the principle that to attribute divinity, in whatever form, to anyone or anything but God is not only spiritually destructive but also logically inadmissible. Furthermore, stress is laid on the fact that all such spiritual aberration is, as a rule, due to people’s blind adherence to what they regard as the faith of their forebears: “Behold, we found our forefathers agreed on what to believe - and, verily, it is in their footsteps that we find our guidance”

Yusuf Ali’s Translation of our new Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of our new Chapter.  
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

PAGE 489 Arabic Qur’an.

1.  From its very first verses, this Chapter tackles its Readers with a statement, then a challenge and an invitation, as well as an assessment of their past history as ‘people who committed excesses’ (مسرفين).

Verses 1-2:  As we said at the beginning of Chapter 40:

“This Chapter is one of seven which begin with a ‘set’ of disjointed sounds/ letters: Hhaa-meem…حم… as we can see here in Tanzil. 
When we look at context, we note that all these ‘sounds/ letters’ precede (5 times) the mention of ‘al Kitaab/ the Compilation,’ and (once) of ‘Tanzeel/ a ‘Transmission’ sent by God to Cognizant Humans,’ and (once) of ‘wahi / exclusive information’ conveyed to Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him, in chapters which are all thought to be late Meccan.”

Today, we note that these sounds/ letters precede mention of ‘al Kitaab al mubeen/ ‘the clarifying’ or ‘expounding’ Compilation[i],’ a statement of fact regarding the single compiled Message which God has sent to mankind by way of His Messengers, all of whom were on a single mission.

New Readers: Please put ‘one compilation’ in ‘Search this Site’ to grasp the importance of this fact.  There is only One God, one ‘Standard of Accountability/ Deen,’ and one ‘Compilation’ sent to Mankind at different stages of our history.

Then, the Verse 3 tells the Meccan Arabs of the time, and us all, that the Compilation was rendered a ‘clearly coherent/ Arabi’ Quraan so that ‘you may secure knowledge.’ For those who had prided themselves on being the most eloquent in the ‘Arabi/ Arabic tongue, this was a clear challenge, and it remains a challenge for us, as our Regular Readers will remember:  How did we feel when we found out that the definition of ‘Arabi’ was not about ‘language’ but rather about ‘expression’ and ‘coherence,’ …and that ‘Quraan’ was not a static ‘Reading/ Recital’ but rather a ‘dynamic’ entity, awaiting a ‘Qaare’/ Reader who is capable of interacting with it?  

It became a challenge for us too; a fulfilling, lifelong challenge which helps us actually hear and understand what God is saying! 

(New Readers: Put ‘components iqra,’ ‘Quraan,’ and ‘secure knowledge’ in Search this Site).

The Qur’an tells us in four instances[ii] that God ‘makes apparent’ His Signs for us so that we might ‘secure knowledge.’

·    The AIM is that we ‘secure knowledge.’
·    The MEANS to that aim is ‘making His Signs apparent.’
·    The CONDITION in which His Signs would be apparent to Humanity is that they are rendered ‘clearly coherent/ Arabi.’

Furthermore, clear coherence is that which can only be delivered by the ‘Arabi’ tongue (لسان عربي). 

‘Arabi’ is the timeless MEDIUM due to the characteristics of the Arabic language, where each sound has a meaning that goes as far back as the earliest human communication and has remained unchanged since the Qur’an was revealed around 1400 years ago.
Put ‘Arabic language’ in ‘Search this Site.’

2. Verse 4 brings us a very important piece of information:  It tells us of the ‘stature’ of the ‘Arabi Qur’an:
It is in God’s ‘Tenure’ (held by Him), at the Source of the Compilation, indeed ‘Exalted and Decisive’ (exalted in rank and decisive in wisdom).

This verse also indicates that whatever was presented to Humanity throughout the ages had come to them from a SINGLE SOURCE, a single Compilation in God’s tenure, and that this Compilation was rendered, in its final presentation, as a coherent, explicit, forever dynamic ‘Reading’ -a Qur’aan rather than a qiraa’ah هو قرآن وليس قراءة)).
It is THIS Compilation/ Evocation-Reminder (Kitaab/ Thikr) which is of abiding benefit (Mubarak) to any Cognizant Human who interacts with it, with the six components of Iqra’ كتاب / ذكر مبارك) هذا).

For New Readers who might ask, “Why did God not send this final Message, complete as it is, from the beginning of Time?” we say that everything was relative to our stages of development as Cognizant Humans, and to our rising degree of accountability.  Please look up your search-words, and check earlier posts where we spoke of the ‘Inviolables’ of the Straight Path (the Ten Commandments) and said:

“Each of the Prophets, in his time, dealt with one or more of these ‘Inviolables,’ attempting to raise people to a higher level of accountability relative to humanity’s advancement.”

Other verses relate to the Qur’an being in a shielded compilation (في كتاب مكنون) – HQ 56:78, and in secured radiance[iii] (في لوح محفوظ-) –HQ 85:22 (see our 1,000 year old Lexicon below).
(Many of us are familiar with the traditional reading of the word ‘lawHh,’ which is explained as a ‘tablet’ or an inscribed ‘plaque,’ with obvious Biblical bias.  On the other hand, we do find Zamakhshari recording an interpretation which says that it means in the ‘air’ (see below).  Anyway, even if we do not fully understand ‘Gheyb’ concepts, we can explain such words linguistically by relying on the amazing connotations of the ‘Arabi tongue’ and coming that much closer to the Truth!) 

The compound word ‘Umm-ul-Kitaab’ appears three times in the Qur’an (HQ 3:7, 13:39, 43:4).  Read these verses and note that, since the Source of the Compilation itself is in His Tenure, it is according to His Leave whether there would be dissolution of certain parts, or affirmation of others.
New Readers:  See June 9th.

3.  Verse 5 asks a rhetorical question, giving Qureish an assessment of their past history as ‘people who committed excesses’ (مسرفين), and asking them directly whether God should ‘overlook them’ (صفح[iv]) with regard to the Thikr/ Evocation/ Reminder.
Then Verses 6-8 remind listeners of the many Prophets whom God had sent to previous communities; others far stronger than they were, who were destroyed for ridiculing their Prophets.

4.  Verse 9 helps us understand the nature of their idolatry:  If the Messenger were to ask them WHO had created the Elevated Expanses (skies/ heavens) and the Earth, they would indeed say that they were created by The Invulnerable, The All-Knowing. 
(So they did know that God was The Creator -which is also clear in other verses such as HQ 29:61; 31:25; 39:38, and is asserted twice in this Chapter, in Verses 9 and 87.)

Verse 10 elaborates, asserting that God is He Who has rendered the Earth a ‘mahd[v]’; literally a ‘smooth, cradling’ place for ‘you,’ and rendered pathways therein so that ‘you’ may find guidance.

PAGE 490 Arabic Qur’an.
5. Verse 11 continues, asserting that it is He Who causes the water to descend time and again from the sky with a projected end (qadar), after which He brings the lifeless land to life.  The verse ends by informing listeners that in such manner shall ‘you’ be brought out (of this earth, upon Resurrection).  

·  ‘Anshara’ literally means to cause something to emerge openly (put ‘nushoor’ in ‘Search this Site’).
·    ‘Qadara’:  An oft-misunderstood word!  The ‘qadar’ of something is its ‘projected end,’ rather than being limited by ‘due measure’ (Ali/Asad).
Put ‘qadr’ in ‘Search this Site.’

6. Verses 12- 13 continue, asserting that it is He Who created all the ‘pairs’ and rendered for us what we ride of the vessels and animals, so that when we are ‘secured, sustained, and balanced’ upon their helm, we subsequently remember The One Who subjected this to our service, acknowledging – while we are riding it and feeling in command - that we are no match in its mastery (to God).

What beautiful verses which tell us to remember our rightful place as recipients of God’s Bounty, moments before we spur our steeds or our engines into action, and run the danger of feeling almighty! 
But then Verse 14 goes a little farther, reminding us to announce, even as we set ourselves in our seat ‘of command,’ that we shall indeed return unto our Lord…

Think, dear Reader, how different this must have sounded 1400 years ago when the only modes of transportation were a horse or a sailboat. 
Don’t you feel dear Reader, that these words speak to us?  It is our ‘vessels’ which, with a thrust of the pedal or a push of a button, are transformed into lethal killing-machines! 

‘Azwaaj’ was translated by Yusuf Ali as ‘pairs’ and by Muhammad Asad as ‘opposites.’  See Asad’s excellent note on this.

7.     In Verses 15- 20 we learn more about the nature of their idolatry:
Knowing that God was The Creator (Al Rahmaan) did not stop them from associating ‘partners’ to Him.  Here Qureish ascribes to God ‘daughters/ banaat.’  See such allegations, mentioned clearly six times in the Qur’an.
Here, they even consider the ‘custodians/ angels’ female, while in reality they are ‘Worshippers of the Creator.’  The idolaters are asked another rhetorical question about whether they had witnessed the creation of these ‘custodians/ angels?’  Then they are warned that their assertions shall be compiled and they shall be questioned.

Notice how they consider God ‘responsible’ for their worshipping of other deities:  Yusuf Ali calls their argument ‘dishonest sarcasm.’  

Verses 17-18 reproach them for their sullenness upon receiving glad tidings of a newborn daughter, and then asks a rhetorical question with regard to a person (a masculine person هو) who is raised with this trait (receiving newborn daughters with sullenness) and who is not clear in disputes. 
See الحلية[vi] and note that the ‘hilyeh’ of something is its characteristic: وهذه حِلية الشيءِ أي صفتُه.

See explanations of Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad.
The traditional explanation is not only unmindful of the masculinity of the pronoun ‘he/ hua,’ and overlooking of the grammatical rule that the pronoun should relate to the closest masculine noun (‘someone’/ ‘ahaduhum’), but it also explains ‘hilyah’ as adornments/ jewelry/trinkets.  Traditional interpretation turns masculine words into feminine explanations, stereotyping females as being raised in baubles, lacking in their capacity to articulate in disputes.  Furthermore, traditionalists consider this less a description of that father’s mindset, and more a Qur’anic statement of fact (!).  Anyway, this might be one explanation why girls are often less desirable as offspring.

In these verses we have learnt something strange: 

Qureish ascribed ‘daughters’ to God although they undoubtedly considered females ‘less’ coveted offspring than ‘males.’

Enough said!
Our next Reading is from HQ 43:21-44 .

Peace unto all!

[i] Zamakhshari tells us that this compilation ‘clarified,’ or ‘made obvious’ the paths to Guidance from the paths to Error.

 الزمخشري: ".....وقيل: (المبين) الذي أبان طرق الهدى من طرق الضلالة..."
[ii] HQ 2:242, 3:118, 24:61, 57:17.

[iii]  Zamakhshari quotes a reading saying that:  ‘LooHh’ is the ‘air:’
الزمخشري: وقرأ يحيى بن يعمر: «في لُوح» واللُوح: الهواء.
As for our 1,000 year old Lexicon, the word ‘lawaHha’ is all about RADIANCE!
معجم المقاييس في اللغة:
 لوح:  أصلٌ صحيح، مُعظَمه مقاربةُ بابِ اللَّمعان. يقال: لاحَ الشَّيء يلوح، إذا لمَحَ وَلَمَع. والمصدر اللَّوْح.
ويقال: ألاحَ بسَيفهِ: لمَعَ به. وألاحَ البرقُ: أومَضَ.
إنَّ الألواح: ما لاح من السلاح، وأكثر ذلك السُّيوفُ.
ومن الباب لَوّحَهُ الحرُّ، وذلك إذا حرَّقه وسوّدَه حتَّى لاح من بُعدٍ لمن أبصَرَه. ومن الباب اللَّوح: الكَتِف. واللَّوح: الواحد من ألواح السَّفينة؛ وهو أيضاً كلُّ عظمٍ عريض. وسمِّي لَوحاً لأنَّه يلُوح.
ومن الباب اللُّوح بالضم، وهو الهواء بينَ السّماء والأرض.

[iv] صفح: أصلٌ صحيحٌ مطَّرد يدلُّ على عَرْض وعِرَض. من ذلك صُفْح الشَّيء: عُرْضُهُ. ويقال رأس مُصْفَحٌ: عريض. والصفيحة: كلُّ سيفٍ عريض. وصَفْحَتا السَّيف: وَجْهاه. وكلُّ حجرٍ عريضٍ صفيحةٌ، والجمع صَفائِح. والصُّفَّاح: كلُّ حجرٍ عريض
ومن الباب: المُصافحةُ باليد، كأنَّه ألصقَ يدَه بصَفحةِ يدِ ذاك. والصَّفْح: الجنْب. وصَفحا كلِّ شيء: جانباه. فأمَّا قولهم: صَفَح عنه، وذلك إِعْراضُهُ عن ذنْبِهِ، فهو من البابِ؛ لأنَّه إِذا أعرضَ عنه فكأنَّه قد ولاَّه صَفْحتَه وصُفحه، أي عُرضه وجانِبَه.

 [v] مهد: توطئةٍ وتسهيلٍ للشّيء. ومنه المَهْد. ومهَّدْتُ الأمرَ: وطَّأته. وتمَهَّد: تَوطَّأ والمِهاد: الوِطاء من كلِّ شيء.
لسان العرب:  والمِهادُ: الفِراش. وقد مَهَدْتُ الفِراشَ مَهْداً: بَسَطْتُه
ووَطَّأْتُه. يقال للفِراشِ: مِهاد لِوِثارَتِه.

[vi]  حلو:، ثلاثة أصول: فالأوّل طِيب الشيء في مَيْل من النّفس إليه، والثاني تحسين الشيء، والثالث-وهو مهموز- تَنْحِيَة الشيء.
  فالأوّل الحُلْو، وهو خلاف المرّ. يقال استحليت الشيءَ، وقد حلا في فمي يحلو، والحَلْوَاء الذي يؤكل يمدّ ويقصر. ويقال حَلِيَ بعيني يَحْلَى. فشأنَكَها إنِّي أمينٌ 
  والأصل الثاني: الحُلِيّ حُلِيُّ المرأة، وهو جمع حَلْيٍ. وهذه حِلية الشيءِ أي صفتُه. ويقال حِلْية السيف، ولا يقال حُلِيّ السيف.
  والأصل الثالث: وهو تنحية الشيء، يقال حَلأّتُ الإبل عن الماء؛ إذا طردتَها عنه.

الزمخشري: وقرىء «ينشأ»، وينشأ ويناشأ. ونظير المناشأة بمعنى الإنشاء: المغالاة بمعنى الإغلاء.

Day 241; Qur’an 42: 44- 53, page 488

Thinking about our last post: 

I find it absolutely wonderful that, after we focus on our beliefs, intentions, and words; after we have attained Faith and become aware of God, and then hopefully taken it upon ourselves to say only what is just and true... … that God Himself will ‘set aright’ our deeds! 

But what this also means, is that whenever our deeds do NOT eventually set ‘themselves’ aright, there is an existing obstacle in our flawed Faith, in our Awareness, or in our spoken word.

Hmmmm… food for thought…      

Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter. 
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

New Readers:  Please make use of ‘Search this Site’ for any unfamiliar word!

PAGE 488 Arabic Qur’an.

1.    Contrasted with the beautiful description of people forbearing and forgiving in the previous verses, Verses 44-47 inform us that any person who has constantly chosen to ‘stray,’ and deserves to be left in that state (which is the Qur’anic connotation of the term يضلل) will find no Protector after having refused God as Protector.
“Have you (sing.) observed the person who took his Desire as his Deity, and whom God [thereupon] let stray despite (his) knowledge, and sealed-over his hearing and heart/mind and rendered upon his sight a veil?  Who then can guide him, (of all who are) lesser than God? Will you not (pl.) then, think back and bring to mind? (HQ 45:23)

Such Wrongdoers will be asking for a second chance when they see the suffering, and are displayed before it.  Humble in abasement, they can only steal furtive glances, at a time when Those who have attained Faith make an important statement:

“Indeed, the Losers are those who have lost themselves and their families upon Resurrection!”

It seems that Believers, especially at that time, can well define what it is to be a Loser!
(It is also interesting to note that both sides will be aware of each other’s fate.)

And the final statements are that the Wrongdoers’ suffering is abiding; and that they have no protectors to defend them other than God, for whomever God lets stray has no open road (out of the predicament). 
2. After that dire picture, Verse 47 seems to recap previous arguments by calling out to us all:

“Respond to your Lord before…”…!

Indeed, this chapter mentions the central issue of ‘responding to God/ to our Lord’ no less than FOUR times (Verses 16, 26, 38, 47), with the most eloquent persuasion and dissuasion.

3. Then, Verse 48 (as in so many other verses) absolves the Messenger of responsibility for people’s reactions to the Message, asserting that his duty is limited to its full delivery (see ‘balaagh’). 

We know that we are responsible for our own deeds, but we tend to justify our actions, even when wrong!  The next part of this verse tells us about the nature of an ‘Insaan/ a Cognizant Human’ (see HQ 30:36).  Note that the ills which befall us are brought forward- into prevalence -by our own ‘abilities/ hands,’ as so many verses assert.
(New Readers: Search this site for ‘anasa; insaan’ and for ‘yad; aid’…يد- أيد)

4.  Verses 49- 50 reiterate that to God belongs the Dominion of Heavens and Earth, after which we are told that everything in Creation is by His Leave.  It is by His leave that some of us are granted offspring, female or male, and others are mated together male and female, only to be rendered ‘sterile’… He is the Knowing, the Capable/ Qadeer.

According to Yusuf Ali:

“The root qadara not only implies power, ability, strength, but two other ideas which it is difficult to convey in a single word, viz., the act and power of estimating the true value of a thing or persons, as in vi. 91; and the act and power of regulating something so as to bring it into correspondence with something. "Judgment of values" I think sums up these finer shades of meaning. ...”

Here we realize that these statements are mentioning God’s ‘Leave’ مشيئة  -and must not be confused with God’s ‘Will’ or God’s ‘Plan إرادة.

·God’s Will:
When He Wills something to come into being, it IS. 
In other words, His Will for it to BE is manifested by its actual existence: ‘Araada’ أراد.

Example:  HQ 19: 34-35, where this concept is best illustrated in the beautiful story of Jesus, peace upon him.

·God’s Plan:
What He has planned in general, which we could take advantage of if we chose to: also ‘Araada’ أراد.
Well-illustrated in HQ 4:26-27, and explained by Yusuf Ali as ‘God does wish’:

“God does wish to make clear to you and to show you the ordinances of those before you and He does wish to turn to you (in Mercy) and God is All-Knowing, Wise.” (4:26)

·God’s Leave: 
It is by His Leave that one issue prevails instead of another, and a possibility becomes a reality. 

We usually translate that as, ‘when He permits’: ‘Sha’a’شاء . 
Example:  HQ18:23-24, which is why we always say, ‘Insha-Allah; God-permitting.’

But remember, dear Reader what we just said above:
WE are the ones who are responsible for advancing (‘taqdeem’[i]) one possibility over another!

At any rate, today’s verses are not about God’s ‘Will’ (which has already taken place), but about God’s ‘Leave,’ when one possibility is allowed to prevail over another, both of which are influenced by OUR ‘leave.’ وما تشاءون إلا أن يشاء الله

5. Our final verses today, Verses 51- 53, address the Messenger, peace upon him.  In Verse 51 we learn of the three approaches in which God ‘speaks’ to a human Messenger:

·     Direct ‘transmission’ of exclusive information (‘wahi’).
·     Or (speaking to him) from behind a ‘barrier/ hijaab.’
·  Or by way of a (angelic) Messenger who transmits the exclusive information.  

We know that Prophet Muhammad received Qur’an at times by direct ‘wahi’ and at times through the angelic Messenger Gabriel.  Similarly, we do not know of anyone other than Prophet Moses, peace upon him, who was actually spoken to verbally.  As we said on March 3rd:

“The word ‘takleema’ after the verb ‘kallama’ (HQ 4:164) serves to indicate that this is NOT a figurative matter; it is literal: God spoke to Moses BY WAY OF SPEECH.”
6.  Verse 52 continues on the topic of Divine communication and command (see ‘Rooh روح + Amr أمر ’), highlighting that Muhammad, prior to the Message, had not determined درى[ii] what was the Compilation, nor what was Conviction. (peace of heart and confidence).

Readers will find this explanation differing from most, including Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad. 

Here is why:

Firstly, many commentators have traditionally explained the word ‘daraa’ as ‘know’ -considering it synonymous with ‘alama-علم’ –while as we see in footnote, what it actually means is ‘to pursue something so as to determine it’  (since you and I have just found this out ourselves, dear Reader, we’ll have to correct all our mistaken renderings of this word!).
Secondly, tradition has also limited the meaning of ‘imaan’ to ‘faith in God.’
This is why we find commentators attempting to work around this verse which according to that explanation, would clearly state that “ did not know what was faith.”

See definition of أمن[iii] below, and remember the word ‘mu’min’ which we explained in two instances (HQ 4:93; 12:17) as ‘Trusting,'/ worthy of confidence’ (meaning that it is NOT referring to one’s ‘religious’ beliefs!).  Also see discussion Feb 24th.  In these instances it is quite clear that ‘mu’min’ is not about having attained faith in God, but rather about having attained security, confidence, and ‘peace of heart.’

Remember how the narrow explanation of ‘mu’min’ (as ‘Faithful/ Muslim’) had led to traditional misunderstanding of HQ 4:93? 

Back to our verse: 
We know that Muhammad, prior to the Message, knew what was ‘faith in God.’  He had never worshipped the idols of his people, and was known to have secluded himself in contemplation and in the worship God Alone.  In fact, he was one of the ‘hunafaa-حنفاء’- the followers of a self-correcting monotheism which was carefully handed down by generation after generation of Prophet Abraham’s descendants, peace upon all God’s Messengers.  In fact, it took place as ‘instruction carried forth’ /‘waSsiyah’ by Prophet Abraham to his children and his grandchild Jacob, and then, in turn, by Prophet Jacob to his children from his deathbed (see HQ 2: 132- 133).  Regular Readers will remember that our Lexicon defines the word ‘waSsaa’ as to link or connect,[iv]  so that there is no break.  In this instance, it is about instruction on worshipping God Alone, to be carried forth, linking one generation to the next. 

New Readers:  Put ‘haneef’ in ‘Search this Site’ and see ‘hanafaحنف- in Qur’an.   

Therefore, the definitions in our 1,000 year old Lexicon offer us a more accurate explanation of this verse, telling the Messenger that before receiving this Message, he ‘…had neither determined what was the Compilation, nor what was Conviction (peace of heart and confidence)’. 

7.  Then the verse continues, telling him that God had rendered it Light to guide those of His Worshippers who by His leave are guided, and that he (Muhammad) indeed guides/ is guided to the ‘Straight Path’ (see HQ 5: 15-16).
Verse 53 ends this chapter by telling us that this path is the Path of God, to Whom belongs all that is in the skies/ the heavens (‘samawaat:’ the ‘exalted expanses/ the highest elevations..) and all that is in earth… indeed unto God do all matters conclude.

Enough said!

Our next Reading is from HQ 43: 1-22; a new Chapter!

Peace unto all!

[i] قدم:  يدلُّ على سَبْق ورَعْف ثم يفرَّع منه ما يقاربُه: يقولون: القِدَم: خلاف الحُدوث. ويقال: شيءٌ قديم، إذا كان زمانُهُ سالفاً. وأصله قولُهم: مضَى فُلاَنٌ قُدُماً: لم يعرِّج ولم ينْثَنِ….ولفلانٍ قدمُ صدقٍ، أي شيءٌ متقدِّم من أثَر حسَن.
ومن الباب: قَدِم من سفره قُدوماً، وأقْدَم على الشيء إقداماً.
ومُقدِّمَة الجيش: أوّله..
فقال قوم: القُدَّام: الملك. وهذا قياسٌ صحيح، لأنَّ الملِك هو المُقدَّم. ويقال: القُدَّام: القادمون من سَفَر. وقَدَمُ الإنسان معروفةٌ، ولعلَّها سمِّيت بذلك لأنَّها آلة للتقدُّم والسَّبْق.
ومما شذَّ عن هذا الأصل القَدُوم: الحديدة يُنحَتُ بها، وهي معروفة.

[ii] دري :أصلان: أحدهما قَصْد الشيء واعتمادُهُ طلَباً، والآخَر حِدَّةٌ تكون في الشَّيء. وأمّا المهموز فأصلٌ واحد، وهو دَفْع الشَّيء.
فالأول قولُهم: ادّرَى بنُو فلانٍ مكانَ كذا، أي اعتمدوه بغَزْوٍ أو غارة
 والدّرِيَّة: الدّابّة التي يَستَتِرُ بها الذي يَرمِي الصَّيدَ ليصيده. يقال منه دَرَيت وادَّرَيْت.
  قال ابنُ الأعرابيّ: تدرَّيت الصّيدَ، إذا نظرْتَ أين هُوَ ولم تَرَهُ بَعدُ. ودريتُه: ختَلْتُه. فأمّا قوله تدرَّيت أي تعلَّمت لدريته أين هو، والقياسُ واحد. يقال دَرَيتُ الشَّيءَ، والله تعالى أدرانيهِ. قال الله تعالى: {قُلْ لَوْ شَاءَ اللهُ ما تَلَوْتُهُ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلاَ أَدْرَاكُمْ بِهِ} [يونس 16]، وفلانٌ حَسَنُ الدِّرْيَة، كقولك حسن الفِطْنة.
  وأما المهموز قولهم دَرَأْتُ الشَّيءَ: دفعتُه. قال الله تعالى: {وَيَدْرَأُ عَنْها الْعَذَابَ} [النور 8].  يقال: جاء السَّيل دَرْءًا، إذا جاءَ من بلدٍ بعيد. وفلان ذُو تُدْرَأٍ، أي قويٌّ على دفْع أعدائه عن نفْسه.
  ودَرَأَ فلانٌ، إذا طَلَع مفاجَأةً، وهو من الباب، كأنّه اندرَأ بنفسه، أي اندفع. ومنه دارأْتُ فلاناً، إذا دافَعْتَه. وإذا ليّنْت الهمزة كان بمعنى الخَتْل والخِداع.

الراغب الأصفهاني:
الدراية: المعرفة المدركة بضرب من الحيل، يقال: دريته، ودريت به، درية، نحو: فطنة، وشعرة، وادريت.

[iii] أمن: أصلان متقاربان: أحدهما الأمانة التي هي ضدّ الخيانة، ومعناها سُكون القلب، والآخر التصديق.

[iv] وصي: يدلُّ على وَصلِ شيءٍ بشيء. ووَصَيْتُ الشَّيءَ: وصَلْتُه.

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