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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Saturday, January 22, 2011

Day 313; Qur’an 112; 113; 114

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Page 604 Arabic Qur’an

سورة الإخلاص
'Purity of Faith/ The Declaration of God's Perfection’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:
"This early Makkan Surah sums up in a few terse words the Unity of the Godhead---often professed, but frequently mixed up in the popular mind with debasing superstitions."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"AS REPORTED in a great number of authentic Traditions, the Prophet was wont to describe this surah as "equivalent to one-third of the whole Qur'an" (Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Hanbal, Abu Da'ud, Nasa'i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah). It seems to have been revealed in the early part of the Mecca period."


What a magnificent Chapter this is, obviously revealed early-on in Mecca, introducing God to the world: 'Call out/ Announce/ Say: He is......' قل هو..... giving us His most important attributes, so Humanity can recognize WHO God is (i).

In this Chapter, we first hear the announcement that 'He is Allah, ONE.' Note that the designation of 'One' does not have a definite article sharing space with it -the verse says 'Allah, AHad,' rather than 'Allah, al Ahad,' or 'the One.' This statement is absolute and true, and is more powerful WITHOUT 'the' definite article: Without the definite article, it indicates that there is NO other 'Allah/ God,' regardless of whether or not people believed in another 'Ilaah/ deity.' This is because the word 'Allah' in Arabic is unique to God Himself; it is far stronger than the English word 'God,' because there is no plural to it, and no one and nothing is called 'Allah' except Him.

Then the second verse tells us that He is 'Allah, The Immutable Purpose (of everythingصمد/ SamaDh (ii). As our 1030 year old Lexicon tells us, SamaDh indicates firmness, stability, and constancy on one hand, AND what is a destination for all beings on another (as well as a source of inspiration). It is He Who is our constant Intent and Aspiration. (Readers might enjoy reading philosophical arguments on the existence of God- google the 'Unmoved Mover' and the 'Uncaused Cause.')
Then, the final two verses tell us a few facts of paramount importance about God, that 'He did not beget (offspring), and He was not begotten, and there never was anyone alike/ equal (iii) to Him.

Beautiful. Concise. Supremely eloquent.
Yet, there were people who did not get it. That is why so many verses have elaborated on these statements.

Important observation:
Let us, with the help of our Tanzil search-engine, try to assess the value of the introductory verse: 'Call out/ Announce/ Say: He is......'
When we put in the two words قل هو , we find that there are only six such instances in the Qur'an (iv), where God tells His Messenger to 'Call out/ Announce/ Say: He (God) is......' قل هو-.
When we study those six verses, we notice that they summarize the entire spectrum of the Human relationship with our Unique Creator/ Al RaHmaan (v)...!!

From the very beginning, when He created us, to giving us our senses, to dispersing us throughout the earth, to sending us Messengers who recited/ conveyed His Signs to us, to the denial "كفر/ kufr" of some, the lack of productivity شكر/ shukr" of others, while there were those who were announcing their faith and reliance on their Sustainer (vi), Al RaHmaan... to the suffering some shall inevitably taste -often at each other's hands, and finally, to our being gathered together for judgement.

Peace unto all!

سورة الفلق
'The Beginning’
From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

"This early Makkan Surah provides the antidote to superstition and fear by teaching us to seek refuge in God from every kind of ill arising from outer nature and from dark and evil plottings and envy on the part of others."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"WHEREAS most of the commentators assign this and the next surah to the early part of the Mecca period, some authorities (e.g., Razi, Ibn Kathir) consider them to have been revealed at Medina, while yet others (e.g., Baghawi, Zamakhshari, Baydawi) leave the question open. On the basis of the scant evidence available to us it appears probable that both these surahs are of early Meccan origin."


These final two Chapters were probably revealed quite early-on in Mecca, and are commonly known as the "Mu'awwathateyn-المعوّذَتَين.." the two chapters of 'Refuge' (see definition / عوذ(vii).
We've already spoken of something similar, where the Messenger/ Listener was told to seek refuge in 'God/ Allah' Himself (read the important notes below viii).
Today however, in Chapter 113, we are told to seek refuge in Him as 'Rabb/ Lord Sustainer of the Falaq/ the Beginning/ Initiation (of all creation. See definition ix).'
No sooner does the Believer pronounce the first verse in this Chapter -as told to do- than each of us finds ourself seeking -AND being granted- refuge in the Lord Sustainer of the Beginning / Rabb-il- Falaq' (see footnote for reminder on 'Rabb' x).

Check out the four instances when variations of the root-verb 'falaqa' are mentioned in the Qur'an; note how the consecutive verses in HQ 6:95-96 show us clearly that it is about God 'cleaving asunder,' splitting the 'seeds of Life' to bring out Life from Death, Death from Life, and also about the 'break' of morning, the sun and the moon.

Therefore, it is in The Rabb/ Lord of all Beginnings that we seek refuge from the following dangers (literal interpretation below):
  • (Verse 2) From the 'worst/ most harmful' of what He has created.
  • (Verse 3) And from the 'badness/ harmfulness' of a Darkener/ Darkened if/ when it/he is engulfed/ engulfs.
  • (Verse 4) And from the 'badness/ harmfulness' of the constant 'Hissers into the knots.'
  • (Verse 5) And from the the 'badness/ harmfulness' of an Envier when/ if he happens to envy.
    Note that Verse 2 seems all-inclusive, granting us refuge from the most harmful of every thing (maa-ما-).
    Then, Verses 3-5 ask refuge from the harm that comes from certain people.
    Verse 3 mentions the 'Darkener/ Darkened' -ghaasiq-(غاسق xi), which is probably not about dark surroundings (see 4 variations of root-verb in Qur'anxii), but rather, it seems to be about a person in dark desperation, which becomes dangerous WHEN AND IF (إذا) it happens to completely engulf (waqaba xiii). Why? Probably because that is when people tend to do something terribly wrong/ harmful, be it night or day.
    Verse 4 mentions the harm of 'Those who repeatedly 'hiss/ blow' نفث (xiv-subtly/ imperceptibly) into the 'knots-عُقَد' (xv).
    Now, the traditional explanation of this verse is that it is about 'female witches and the evil magic' they perform. Why? Probably because the subject 'al naffaathaat' is feminine plural, and the object 'uqad' is the plural of 'uqdah/ knot,' which may be how 'magic' was performed at some point in time.
    But that is NOT a researched explanation!
    Let us see:
    Linguistics: We first make sure that the singular of 'uqad' is 'uqdah' (xvi); it certainly is.
    Qur'anic Context: We check our Qur'an search-engine Tanzil to see if 'uqdah' is mentioned in Qur'an, and what it relates to. When we do that, we're in for a surprise!

    • Once, about a 'tongue-tied' speech-impediment.
      Therefore, we seek refuge in the Lord of the Falaq/ Beginning, from anyone who 'hisses into this kind of knot,' and is prone to taking advantage of people who are less eloquent, causing wrong judgement to be passed against others, for their own benefit (as in the famous Saying/ Hadeeth below xvii of the Prophet, peace upon him).
    • Twice about the Marriage knot.

What? The marriage knot? My God what a discovery! That means that the marriage agreement is NOT an 'Aqd NikaaH عَقْد نكاح' as we have commonly been calling it for hundreds of years, but rather: It is a 'Uqdah-ta NikaaH عُقدة نكاح.' Isn't THAT a surprise? No wonder nobody thought of this most important of 'knots/ uqad' when they explained this verse (xviii)!

We have often spoken about the cherished marriage setting, and shown the SANCTITY of the Marriage Union when we've encountered related Qur'anic verses. No one and nothing should be allowed to damage this union, and anyone who is prone to do so, subtly dissolving ties and poisoning relationships, is 'sharr/ evil.' We 'seek refuge in The Lord of the Falaq/ Beginning' from such persons.

Q. Do I think that these are the only ways to understand these verses?
A. No. I am always open to a better understanding, based on language and context. Who knows what else may come up when I revise this entire project?


For Readers who still think that this verse is specifically about being 'put under a magic spell,' I have two things to say:
-Firstly, what you may call magic is called 'siHr' in Arabic, and we have already proven from the Qur'an that 'siHr' is a combination of awe and deception (put words in 'Search').

-Secondly, when the Qur'an condemns those who practice 'siHr' in HQ 2: 102, it mentions, in particular, those whose purpose it is to cause separation amongst spouses.
THAT is what is most dangerous to society. Honorable relationships/ knots are supposed to be maintained; some are bound by contracts and agreements, and it is bad/ evil for a third party to work subtly and constantly to dissolve them.. and the MOST evil deed of all is the wrecking of a marriage. The family is the nucleus of society, and when the husband-wife relationship is healthy, one can expect a healthy society.
Therefore, since the verse does not allude to 'siHr' or mention it, it must remain open that this verse is about whoever/ whatever works at dissolving the 'uqad/ knots' of human relationships in general, and of marriage in particular.
Yet, dear Friends, bear in mind that although we may have uncovered what DOES seem to be the most plausible explanation, we should continue to think about this. Due mainly to our own departure from the eloquent Arabic of 1400 years ago, such verses are not easy to understand.

As we said above, Verse 2 seems all-inclusive, granting us refuge from the most harmful of every thing (maa-ما-) He created, while Verses 3-5 seem to mention seeking refuge from more specific harm.. the BEHAVIOR emanating from certain people:

  • The harm emanating from a person who happens to be in the darkness of Despair (xix), if and when the darkness closes in on him/ her.
  • The harm emanating from whoever 'hisses' subtly to dissolve ties, especially marriage/ family ties, and takes advantage of less eloquent people.
  • The harm emanating from a person who happens to be envious (of someone/ something xx), if and when s/he acts upon that envy (xxi).

Bear in mind that the misfortunes which befall us are from 'ourselves'... they are the 'earnings of human hands,' as we're told in HQ 4:79, 42: 30.
What this seems to indicate is that it is we people who actually 'create' our misdeeds, not God. Although He created us and we are not to blame for our natural tendencies, the way we act upon them is our choice.
When we seek refuge in Him from all harm AND from people who do wrong: We virtually CLOSE all our receptors to negative vibes.

Peace unto all!

سورة الناس
'Cognizant Humans’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

"This early Makkan Surah is a pendant to the last, and concludes the Holy Quran with an appeal to us to trust in God, rather than man, as our sure shield and protection. It warns us specially against the secret whispers of evil within our own hearts."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"SEE introductory note to the preceding surah, with which this one is closely connected."


This Chapter is unlike the last. Although it is also about seeking refuge, here we are seeking refuge from only ONE THING: The Inaudible Inciter, who prods us to commit mis-deeds!

See five verses with variations of the root-verb 'wasswassa,' and note that it is not only the Deviant/ SheyTaan (xxii) who does this kind of imperceptible prompting, but our own Selves as well.
In the last Chapter, we sought refuge in the Lord/ Sustainer of the Falaq/ Beginning, from ALL harm which He created, and from persons who do harm.
Here however, we seek refuge in Him as Lord of 'Cognizant Humans' from the harm which may take place from impulses within our Cognizance itself, whether it is coming to us from the Deviant/ Satan, another person, or from our own Selves!

As soon as we've pronounced the first verse of this Chapter -as told to do- each of us finds ourself seeking (and being granted) a 'refuge in:

  • The Rabb/Lord Sustainer of (all) the Cognizant Humans.
    See eight verses which mention Rabb/ Lord + Cognizant Humans, and note that it is about worshipping Him, being aware of Him, recognizing the Truth, appreciating the Evidence, accepting His guidance, having faith in His Messenger, and being aware of the quaking of the (final) Hour. He is our Rabb, and after acknowledging that, we seek and find refuge in Him.
  • The Malek/ Sovereign-Custodian of (all) the Cognizant Humans.
    See HQ 3: 26- 27, and note that it is He who dignifies or degrades us, strengthens/ ennobles or weakens/ humiliates us, and He is over all things Capable. He is our Malek, and after acknowledging that, we seek and find refuge in Him.
  • The (Sole) Deity/ God of (all) the Cognizant Humans.
    See six verses which mention 'Ilaah/Deity + Cognizant Humans,' and note that all these verses share one theme: That He is our Only Deity. He is our Ilaah, and after acknowledging that, we seek and find refuge in Him.

Therefore, we seek and find refuge in The Rabb of Cognizant Humans, The Malek of Cognizant Humans, The Ilaah of Cognizant Humans, from the harm/ badness of the 'waswaas, the khannaas,' the slinking inaudible Whisperer, who (in such manner) whispers in the 'SuDoor/ Chests/ Heads' of Cognizant Humans, of the Jinnah/ Incognito, Unseen Beings, AND the Cognizant Humans.

Thus, by having faith, closing our receptors, and placing our trust in God, our unique Rabb, Malek, and Ilaah, we have refuge in Him. Even if something seemingly harmful does befall us, He will ultimately turn it to our favor.

And so it is, dear Friends, that we have arrived at the end of this stage of the IQRA Challenge, which took four years to complete.

May God bless you all, and guide you to fulfillment in life, and joy in the Hereafter.

Please pray for me.
I have a lot of work now, as I seek to validate the most important recoveries and bring them to a library near you!

Peace unto all!

A Prayer of Love

My heart with love for Thee doth beat a few
And miss a beat
As mine eyes with tears do fill
When I hear Thy name
For since I came to Thee my life
Hath been complete
Thine was the spark of guidance
That lit my flame

A flame of faith, of promise
Of devotion ever-bright
A flame of Truth, dispersing darkest
Shadows of the night

I lived in darkness
Mine eyes were blind though they could see
Mine ears were deaf
Though they could hear the rapturous melodies
Of life.  Dazzled by its colors
Its capturing flavors
Its lingering scents
Was I… as a leaf blown by the winds of time
Time that was bent
On destroying me… until
One day I opened mine eyes
And I could see!

Oh Lord! Thy guidance deserved I not
Through deeds of mine
Or through prayers, or humility, but it’s true
Since before I can remember
I have always known
Deep within me a yearning love for You

Oh Lord, with this prayer I shut mine eyes
To sleep in peace
Knowing that You never do
One and only Protector
Since and till forever
Of our lives
Until the Hour
When we finally come to You

When my heart with life doth beat a few
Then cease to beat
As mine eyes shut forever
And forgotten is my name
Thanks to Thy guidance
My mission on earth
Would be complete
Knowing that my efforts
Were not in vain

And having tried to light
For some their way
An honor it was to melt
As a candle consumed by its flame

It was all for love of Thee
Glorified is Thy name
For love of Thee
Dear God,

Allah’ is God in Arabic, commonly shared amongst Christian and Jewish Arabs, as well as the general Muslim population.  Arabs share similar praises of God and quite the same words to describe Him.  Listening to Church services in the Arab world is helpful in appreciating that affinity.


See Yusuf Ali's comments on Verse1.

صمد: أَصلان: أحدهما القَصْد، والآخَر الصَّلابة في الشَّيء.
فالأوَّل: الصَّمْد: القصد. يقال صَمَدْتُه صَمْداً. وفلان مُصَمَّدٌ، إِذا كان سيِّداً يُقصَدُ إليه في الأمور. وصَمَدٌ أيضاً. والله جلَّ ثناؤه الصَّمَد؛ لأنه يَصْمِد إليه عبادُهُ بالدُّعاء والطَّلَب. 
والأصل الآخر الصَّمْد، وهو كلُّ مكان صلب.

كفأ: أصلانِ يدلُّ أحدُهما على التَّساوِي في الشَّيئين، ويدلُّ الآخر على المَيْل والإمالة والاعوجاج، فالأول: كافأت فلاناً، إذا قابلتَه بمثل صَنيعه. والكفء: المِثْل. قال الله تعالى: {وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ كُفُواً أحَدٌ} [الإخلاص 4]. والتكافؤ: التَّساوِي. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: "المسلمون تتكافأ دماؤُهم"، أي تتساوى.
وجاء في الحديث في ذكر العَقيقة: "شاتان متكافئتان"، قالوا: معناه متساويتان في القَدْر والسنّ.
وأمَّا الآخر فقولُهم: أكفأت الشيءَ، إذا أمَلْتَه. ولذلك يقال أكفأتُ القوسَ، إذا أمَلْتَ رأسَهَا ولم تَنْصِبْها حين ترمِي عنها. واكتفأتُ الصحفة، إذا أمَلْتَها إليك.ويقال: أكفأت الشَّيءَ: قلبتُه، وكفأتُ أيضاً. ويقال للسَّاهِمِ الوجه: مُكفأ الوجه، كأنَّ وجهَه قد أُمِيلَ عما كان عليه من البَشَارة. ومن الباب الإكفاء في الشِّعر، وهي أن ترفع قافية وتخفض أخرى. ويزعمون أنَّ العرب قد كانت تعرف هذا

Three of which are in Chapter 67

Note that 'Al RaHmaan is mentioned twice in these verses, while the word 'Allah' is only mentioned once, in Chapter 112, which introduces Him, God, Allah. All the other verses speak of His relationship TO us, which is that of Al RaHmaan/ our Unique Creator.

The Arabic term RABB means much more than 'Lord'.  It refers to someone who has a just claim to possession and authority over something, as well as the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing it together from inception to final completion.

عوذ: أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على معنىً واحد، وهو الالتجاء إلى الشَّيء، ثم يُحمَل عليه كلُّ شيء لصق بشيءٍ أو لازَمَه.
قال الخليل: تقول أعوذ بالله، جلَّ ثناؤُه، أي ألجأ إليه تبارك وتعالى، عَوْذاً أو عِياذاً. ذكر أيضاً أنّهم يقولون: فلانٌ عياذٌ لك، أي ملجأ. وقولهم: مَعاذَ الله، معناه أعوذ بالله. وكذا أستعيذ بالله. وقال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم للتي استعاذت منه: "لقد عُذْتِ بمَعَاذ". قال: والعُوذة والمَعَاذة: التي يُعوَّذ بها الإنسان من فَزَعٍ أو جُنون.

There are four instances in the Qur’an where the Messenger is told to seek refuge in God/ Allah specifically (unlike the two instances we see now in our final Chapters, where he is told to announce/ say that he seeks refuge in 'The Lord/ Rabb of...').  To understand any circumstance that would necessitate seeking such refuge, we must look to context.

We spoke earlier of these 4 instances, and noticed that 3 of them were related to self-control, patience, and graciousness when accosted by different kinds of people:
  • HQ 7: 200 told the Messenger/ Listener to command people to what is mutually acceptable/ عرف (using words/ concepts the common man would understand and agree to) and to TURN AWAY FROM IGNORANT people who continue to refuse his guidance (probably because, once they've refused to listen, any further contact with them will only yield ignorant remarks and behavior on their part), and if the Deviant/ SheyTaan incited him (to any negative action), he is to seek refuge in God. That's it. What GREAT advice for us all: Here we note that this command was not specific to the 'Prophet/ Nabi,' which means that it is for ALL TIME, and that THIS IS THE WAY WE ARE SUPPOSED TO DEAL WITH IGNORANT PEOPLE, displaying wisdom and letting things be.
  • HQ 40: 56 told the Messenger/ Listener to seek refuge in God whenever ARROGANT people argue about God's signs. (Again, this command was not specific to the 'Prophet/ Nabi,' which indicates that it is for ALL TIME.)
  • HQ 41: 36 told the Messenger/ Listener, that when speaking to AGGRESSIVE PEOPLE (and they treat him with animosity) HE IS TO CONFRONT THEM WITH THE BEST OF SPEECH & BEHAVIOR which might diffuse the animosity, and then make such a person into a close friend, and to seek refuge in God when the Deviant/ SheyTaan incites him to behave differently. (Here too, this command was not specific to the 'Prophet/ Nabi,' which indicates that it is for ALL TIME.)
Now, we come to the fourth instance in HQ 16: 98, which has nothing to do with people. Here, the Messenger/ the listener is commanded to seek refuge in God from possible Deviance when intending to 'iqra' the Qur'an, so as not to MISREAD, MISUNDERSTAND, AND MISREPRESENT it!  

Read the post where this verse is explained, where we realized that this is ONLY time we are commanded to seek refuge in God WIHTOUT it relating to the challenge of dealing with people's negativity. 

New Readers: You MUST check out the difference between Kitaab and Qur'an, and realize that it is each of us, as a Qaare'/ Reader (implementing the 6 components of Iqra) who transforms the Kitaab/ Compilation into the dynamic and interactive Qur'an (put 'Kitaab Quraan' in Search).  

فلق: أصلٌ صحيحٌ يدلُّ على فُرْجةٍ وبَيْنُونةٍ في الشيء، وعلى تعظيمِ شيء. من ذلك: فَلَقْتُ الشّيءَ أَفْلِقُه فَلْقاً. والفَلَق: الصُّبح؛ لأنَّ الظَّلام يَنْفلِقُ عنه. والفَلَق: مطمئنٌّ من الأرض كأنَّه انفلَقَ، وجمعه فِلْقانٌ. والفَلق: الخَلْق كله، كأنَّه شيءٌ فُلِق عنه شيء حَتَّى أُبرِزَ وأظْهِر. ويقال: انفَلَقَ الحَجَر وغيرُه وكلَّمنَي فلانٌ من فَِلْق فيه. وهو ذاك القياس.
والآخَر الفليقة، وهي الدَّاهية العظيمة. والعرب تقول: يا لَلْفليقة. والأمر العَجَبُ العظيم. وأفْلَقَ فلانٌ: أتى بالفِلْق. وكذلك يقال شاعرٌ مُفلِق.
والفيلق: العجبُ أيضاً.

The word 'Rabb' refers to someone who has a just claim to possession and authority over something, as well as the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing it together from inception to final completion.

xiiNote that 2 of these verses are about 'ghassaaq,' a dreadful slop given to the inhabitants of Jahannam/ Hell. So 'ghaasiq' in Chapter 113 is probably NOT about 'nighttime' as commonly believed, and at one time, feared. Doesn't the first verse anyway cover WHATEVER is dangerous and fearful, dark nights included?

غسق: أصلٌ صحيح يدل على ظُلْمة. فالغَسَق: الظلمة. والغاسِق: الليل. ويقال: غَسَقت عينُه: أظلمت. وأغْسَقَ المؤذِّن، إذا أخَّر صلاةَ المغرب إلى غَسَق اللَّيل. وأمّا الغَسَّاق الذي جاء في القرآن، فقال المفسِّرون: ما تقطَّرَ من جلود أهل النار.‏
وقب: كلمةٌ تدلُّ على غَيبةِ شيءٍ في مَغَاب. يقال وَقب الشَّيءُ: دخَلَ في وَقْبة، وهي كالنُّقْرة في الشَّيء. ووقَبَتْ عيْناه: غارتا. [و] وقَبَ الشَّيءُ: نَزَلَ ووَقَع. قال الله تعالى: {ومِنْ شَرِّ غَاسِقٍ إذَا وَقَبَ}[الفلق 3]، قالوا: هو اللَّيل إذا نَزَل. وأمَّا قولُهم: إنَّ الوَقْب هو الأحمَقُ فهو من الإبدال، والأصل وَغْب، وقد ذَكَرناه.

نفث: يدلُّ على خروج شيء من فمٍ أو غيره بأدنَى جَرْس. منه نَفَثَ الرّاقِي رِيقَه، وهو أقلُّ من التَّفْل. والساحرة تَنْفُِثُ السمّ. و "لابدَّ للمصدور أن يَنْفُث" مثَل. و "لو سألني نُفَاثَةَ سِوَاكٍ ما أعطيته"، وهو ما بقي في أسنانه فنفَثَه. ودمٌ نفيثٌ: نَفَثَهُ الجُرحُ، أي أظهَرَه.

عقد: يدلُّ على شَدٍّ وشِدّةِ وُثوق، وإليه ترجعُ فروعُ البابِ كلها.
وعَقَدت الحبلَ أعقِده عَقْداً، وقد انعقد، وتلك هي العُقْدة.
ومما يرجع إلى هذا المعنى لكنَّه يُزَاد فيه للفصل بين المعاني: أعقَدْت العَسَل وانعقد، وعسلٌ عقيد ومُنعقِد.
وعاقَدته مثل عاهدته، وهو العَقْد والجمع عُقود. قال الله تعالى: {أوْفُوا بالعُقود} [المائدة 1]، والعَقْد: عَقْدُ اليمين، [ومنه] قوله تعالى: {ولكِنْ يُؤَاخِذُكُمْ بِمَا عَقَّدْتُمُ الأَيْمَانَ} [المائدة 89]. وعُقْدَة النكاح وكلِّ شيء: وُجوبُه وإبرامُه.
والعُقْدة في البيع: إيجابه. والعُقْدَة: الضَّيْعة، والجمع عُقَد. يقال اعتقد فلانٌ عُقْدةً، أي اتَّخذها. واعتقد مالاً وأخاً، أي اقتناه. وعَقَد قلبَه على كذا فلا يَنزِع عنه. واعتَقَد الشيءُ: صَلُب. واعتَقَد الإخاءُ: ثَبَتَ. والعَقِيد: طعام يُعْقَد بعسل. والمَعَاقِد: مواضع العَقْد من النِّظام.
وعِقْدُ القِلادة ما يكون طُوَارَ العُنق، أي مقدارَه. قال الدريديّ: "المِعقاد خيط تنظم فيه خَرَزَات".
قال الخليل: عَقَد الرَّمل: ما تراكم واجتمع، والجمع أعقاد. وقلَّما يقال عَقِد وعَقِدات، وهو جائز.
ومن أمثالهم: "أحمق من تُرْب العَقَد" يعنون عَقَد الرَّمل؛ وحُمْقُه أنّه لا يثبت فيه التّراب، إنما ينهار. و"هو أعطش من عَقَد الرّمْل"، و"أشْرَبُ من عَقَد الرّمل" أي إنّه يتشرَّب كلَّ ما أصابه من مطر ودَثَّة.
قال ابنُ الأعرابيّ: العُقْدة من الشّجر: ما يكفي المالَ سنَتَه. قال غيرُه: العُقْدَة من الشّجَر: ما اجتمع وثبَتَ أصلُه. ويقال للمكان الذي يكثر شجرُه عُقدة أيضاً. وكلُّ الذي قيل في عُقدة الشَّجَر والنَّبْت فهو عائد إلى هذا. ولا معنى لتكثير الباب بالتكرير.
قال ابنُ الأعرابيّ: عُقَد الدُّورِ والأرَضِينَ مأخوذةٌ من عُقَد الكلأ؛ لأنَّ فيها بلاغاً وكِفاية. وعَقَد الكَرْمُ، إذا رأيتَ عُودَه قد يَبس ماؤُه وانتهى.
وعَقَدَ الإفطُ. ويقال إنّ عَكَد اللسان، ويقال لـه عَقَد أيضاً، هو الغِلَظ في وسطه. وعَقِد الرّجلُ، إذا كانت في لسانه عُقدة، فهو أعقَدُ.
ويقال: تعقَّد السَّحابُ، إذا صار كأنّه عَقْد مضروبٌ مبنيّ. ويقال للرجل: "قد تَحلَّلت عُقَده"، إذا سكنَ غضبَهُ. ويقال: "قد عقد ناصيتَه"، إذا غَضِب فتهيَّأ للشَّر. قال الدريديّ: "عَقَّدَ فلان كلامَه، إذا عمَّاه وأعْوَصه([70]) ". ويقال: إنّ المعقِّد السّاحر. وإنما قيل ذلك لأنّه يعقِّد السِّحر. وقد جاء في كتاب الله تعالى: {وَمِنْ شَرِّ النَّفَّاثَاتِ في الْعُقَد} [الفلق 4]: من السَّواحر اللواتي يُعقِّدن في الخُيُوط. ويقال إذا أطبق الوادي على قوم فأهلكهم: عقد عليهم.

عَقْدٌ جمعها: عُقُودٌ
عقدة جمعها:  عُقَد 
The Prophet is reported to have said, “I am only human, and you people (opponents) come to me with your cases; and it may be that one of you presents his argument more eloquently than the other, and I render my verdict according to what I hear. So if I ever pass judgement and allot someone what rightfully belongs to his brother, then he should not take it, for I would only have allotted him a piece of the Fire.”

No one seems to have noticed this explanation since it has become common usage to erroneously call the marriage-bond 'aqd al nikaaH' instead of the Qur'anic 'uqdah-tul nikaaH.'

In Arabic, one can tell the difference between 'someone who happens to be any description at a point in time,' versus 'someone in whom the description is innate or emphasized,' by the grammatical form of the noun itself.
The first is 'faa'il'فاعل the second is 'fa'ool' فعول.

'Haasid' = 'Faa'il' (see previous foot-note).

لسان العرب:
الجوهري الحسد أن تتمنى زوال نعمة المحسود إليك . يقال : حسده يحسده حسودا . وروي عن النبي ، صلى الله عليه وسلم ، أنه قال : ( لا حسد إلا في اثنتين : رجل آتاه الله مالا فهو ينفقه آناء الليل والنهار ، ورجل آتاه الله قرآنا فهو يتلوه 
الحسد : أن يرى الرجل لأخيه نعمة فيتمنى أن تزول عنه وتكون له دونه ، والغبط : أن يتمنى أن يكون له مثلها ولا يتمنى زوالها عنه 

Admiration for someone is called 'ghibTah' in Arabic; it means feeling envious AND happy for them, at the same time.

معجم المقاييس في اللغة:
غبط: له ثلاثة وجوه: أحدها دوامُ الشيء ولزومُه، [والآخَر الجَسُّ]، والآخِر نوعٌ من الحَسَد.
فالأوّل قولهم: أغْبَطَتْ عليه الحُمَّى، أي دامَت. وأغبَطْتُ الرَّحْلَ على ظَهر البَعِيرِ، إذا أدمْتَه هذا الغِبْطة: حُسْن الحالِ ودوامُ المَسَرَّة والخَيْر.
والأصل الآخر الغَبْط، يقال: غبَطْتُ الشَّاةَ، إذا جسستَها بيدك تنظر بها سِمَنٌ.
ومن هذا الباب: الغَبِيط : أرضٌ مطمئنّة، كأنّها غُبِطَتْ حتى اطمأنَّت.
والثالث الغَبْط، وهو حَسَدٌ يقال إنَّه غيرُ مذموم، لأنَّه يَتمنَّى ولا يُريد زوالَ النِّعمة من غيره، والحَسَدُ بخلاف هذا. وفي الدعاء. "اللهمَّ غَبْطاً لا هَبْطاً"، ومعناه اللهمَّ [نَسْأَلُك أن] نُغبَط ولا نهْبَطَ، أي لا نُحَطّ.

We spoke of this earlier.
New Readers: Please put any word in Search, and try to understand what all these words are about.
Jinn/ janna is simply about being imperceptible, and 'SheyTaan' in certain contexts (such as HQ 3: 26) means 'gang-leader.'
See 3 instances of root-verb 'hamaza' in Qur'an, which shows us that the 'shayaTeen' mentioned in HQ 23: 97 are human, as is their action of 'hamz.

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