CLICK IMAGE: Tanzil Website

UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Monday, December 6, 2010

Day 266; Qur’an 59: 1-24, pages 545-548

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.

Their commentaries can be read in ‘verse by verse’ view.

سورة الحشر
‘The Convergence (of driven Multitudes)’
‘The Banishment/ Exile’ (Ali/ Asad).

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

“This is the third of the series of ten short Madinah Surahs, dealing each with a specific point in the life of Ummah... The special theme here is how treachery to the Ummah on the part of its enemies recoils on the enemies themselves, while it strengthen the bond between the different sections of the Ummah itself, and this illustrated by the story of the expulsion of the Jewish tribe of Banu Nadir in Rabi al Awal, 4 A.H.  This fixes the date of the Surah.”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“As always in the Qur'an, these historical references serve to illustrate a spiritual truth: in this case, the lesson that believers - even if they are inferior in numbers, wealth and equipment -are bound to triumph over their opponents so long as they remain truly conscious of God: for, as the opening and closing verses of this surah declare, "He alone is almighty, truly wise".


I am among those who do NOT subscribe to what is traditionally perceived (against all Qur’anic evidence) as the BACKGROUND for such verses, among which are those relating to the Jewish tribes of Medina.  Why?  Because of Qur’anic evidence I’ve observed so far, AND I am old enough to have experienced -in my own lifetime- countless incidents between opposing factions, and then seen the emergence –AND the acceptance - of grossly distorted reports which are considered ‘valid,’ while I know otherwise!  To me, Truth is what God has witnessed and reported in the Qur’an… BUT it is up to us to EXPOSE that truth, based on language and context.  Everything after the fact is arguable.
It is important to know that the most authentic reports about the Prophet’s life and times are in the Qur’an itself.  That is why, since this project is about understanding the Qur’an as revealed, you might find me trying NOT to overwrite what it says[i].

 PAGE 545Arabic Qur’an

1.     The first verse in this chapter presents a statement of fact:

‘Motivated/ Moving to God is everything in the Exalted Expanses and everything on Earth,
and He is The Invincible, The Wise.’

You will remember that the chapter before last, Chapter 57, also began with this beautiful statement (except that it mentioned ‘ma’ /everything’ only once).

Regular Readers will remember how we explained the concept of ‘tasbeeh,’ and said that it was related to the constant motion and changes which characterize everything, and the process of ‘becoming’ by which they fulfill their God-given characteristics (see ‘tasbeeh’ mentioned in the Qur’an).  Since everything ‘is in a state of motion/ motivation to fulfill itself naturally, it is in a ‘tasbeeh[ii]’ mode simply by existing. As for us cognizant humans….far more is expected of us than mere ‘existence;’ We are higher beings with mental and psycho-spiritual potential which seek fulfillment!

2.     Verses 2-4 describe what had taken place in Medina, at a point in time called ‘awwal al-Hashr,’ ‘the beginning of the convergence of multitudes’ (I dispute the reports of most commentators who traditionally explain THIS ‘Hashr’ as ‘Banishment of the Jewish tribe of Bani-NaDeer’ and of others who say that it is when the Believers ‘first converged’ against that tribe, in retaliation for its treason and its having broken the peace-pact).  Think with me, dear Reader!

The verb ‘Hashara:’[iii] Which we defined earlier, and said that it is about ‘converging, being stirred or driven in multitudes’ (actually, the Arabic noun ‘Hasharah’ means ‘insect’ because that’s how insects converge, always in multitudes, literally ‘swarming!’).
Qur’anic evidence seems to indicate that these verses are related to the ‘driven convergence/ Hashr’ of the ‘Confederates- al AHzaab’ upon Medina (see Chapter 33), in which the multitudes besieged Medina in vain, and ended up departing WITH NO BATTLE.  This  non-battle was named the ‘Battle of Al Ahzaab’ and also the ‘Battle of the Trench.’

Important Note;
The perceived historic ‘setting’ for these verses is unproven and quite controversial.  Ever since Ibn Hisham (218 A.H./ 834 A.D) wrote his abridged version of the ‘Seerah/ Life of the Prophet,’ ‘Muslim’ and ‘Non-Muslim’ writers have been criticizing his work and giving opposing explanations to certain incidents of the Prophet’s life events, despite it being considered the most ‘authoritative source.’  Firstly, it is one person’s rewriting of another person’s compilation of narratives of which that person had said: Only God knows which of these narratives are true[iv] (Ibn Ishaaq, in his introduction).

I do not wish to indulge anyone’s viewpoint. We are all seeing history unfold every day, reading and listening to opposing accounts of the same event, and many of us are now beginning to realize how easily truth can be stomped down beneath the boots of self-interest.  The version of ‘history’ to ultimately prevail is that which is better documented for posterity, and is backed by supporting evidence from supposedly unbiased corroborators.  So, since I cannot say that the incidents mentioned in ‘historical narratives’ related to the Prophet’s lifetime are true and unbiased, any explanation of Qur’an based on them must remain just an opinion, and nothing more.  Indeed, it is a tragedy that many Qur’anic truths have been bent to serve what is perceived as ‘historic report,’ rather than the report itself earning validity only when corroborated by the Qur’an.
This is why, when we seek general Truths about the Prophet’s life, we should look to the Qur’an.  God is Sole Witness, and the Qur’an is sole authority on what really took place.
Now, our verses describe what had taken place in Medina, at a point in time called ‘awwal al-Hashr’ or the beginning of the ‘driven convergence of multitudes.’ 
Note that by saying that this took place as ‘the beginning’ of the Convergence,’ we understand that listeners already know what ‘the convergence’ is about.

As mentioned above, Qur’anic evidence seems to indicate that these verses are related to the ‘driven convergence/ Hashr’ of the ‘Confederates- al AHzaab’ upon Medina (see Chapter 33), and they provide us with further detail to complete THAT narrative. 

Q. How can we validate that?

A. Through QUR’ANIC narrative and context, which speaks of a group from the ‘People of the Compilation’ who were ‘backing’ the ‘Confederates’ -with identical wording of how they felt when they were defeated (see HQ 33:26).  This must point to the same incident, for nothing in the Qur’an is coincidental!  Furthermore during that battle, as the Qur’an says, the Believers ended up killing a group, and capturing another.  Here again, dear Reader, our research brings us so much closer to what had actually happened, and corrects biased ‘historical’ narratives.

Indeed, this corrects a HIGHLY CONTROVERSIAL so-called ‘historic’ narrative, dear Reader, which you can check out in footnote.

Back to our verses:
Speaking to the Faithful, Verse 2 says that it is God who took ‘Those who had Denied’ OF the People of the Compilation (not all) out of their ‘communes/ diyaar’ [v]) at the first Convergence of the multitudes (at a time when) you did not presume that they would come out….’
(Now, this group had not only allied itself with the Idolaters of Qureish against the Messenger and his companions, but had also committed a most terrible miscalculation!)
… and they presumed that their fortresses would ‘defend’ them from God….. 

This information shows us three things:
·      That they knew Muhammad was a true Messenger of God.
·     That their arrogance would not allow them to admit that and change their position (despite knowing that God was NOT on their side, they went ahead anyway).
·      That God, to them, is flawed, and they have no reverence for Him.
·     That, all the while, God knew what went on in their minds and was going to bring about a just end.
Then the verse continues, saying that ‘God came upon them from whence they had not calculated/ reckoned, and cast terror into their hearts/ minds (literally: sweeping, overwhelming fear[vi]); they were demolishing their own houses by their own hands (powers) as well as the ‘hands/ power’ of the Faithful, so learn (a lesson from this) O People of Observation (أولي الأبصار- see 3 times mentioned in Qur’an).

Dear Reader:
We would be amiss if we did not pause here to try and understand this lesson.
By referring to similar verses in the Qur’an, we find something important which might be learnt:

We note how, in HQ 3:13 the Deniers’ perception of reality changes, and that in HQ 24:44 it is about the interchange of night and day…. so…therein lies an important lesson which offers us an important warning of the consequences of our actions: 

When people to whom God has given ‘Light/ Enlightenment’ FAIL in upholding it, and thereby allow the Light to turn to Darkness:

·  They become ‘Deniers’ (who have ‘denied/ covered/ concealed’).
·   Because they do not see the true strength of their Opposers, they envision their numbers multiplied. 
·   Their lives and the lives of their children become unsustainable.

They destroy everything by their own hands and the hands of others more worthy than they (who have upheld the Light).
Does that strike a cord with you, dear Reader?
Do you see something similar in what is happening around us today?

PAGE 546 Arabic Qur’an

3.     Verse 4 gives us the REASON behind all that had happened to them:
It was the severe consequence ‘iqaab’ of having cut themselves off from God, and contended with God and His Messenger

Regular Readers may remember the GENERAL RULE mentioned in HQ 30:10, which tells us that, eventually, the consequence which fall upon Those who Injure (others) is INJURY itself!

ثم كان عاقبة الذين أساءوا السوأى....

Verse 5 continues the narrative of self-destruction regarding Those who contend with God (and injure others), showing us how their livelihood gets threatened or destroyed, and that whatever happened to their tender crops is by God’s leave (remember, they would end up destroying their own homes by their own hands and those of the Faithful. Also put ‘lenient’ in ‘Search.’)
In this verse, the Faithful seem to be given permission to cut the crops of people with whom they are at war (those who were first described as ‘Deniers’ and now as ‘Deserters/ Breachers / faaasiq’… probably indicating the breach of their own ‘Faith’ as well as their agreement with the Prophet).
The purpose for threatening to, or actually resorting to the cutting of their crops is to subjugate them ‘khizy-خزي[vii].

See explanation of Verses 6-7 by Ali/ Asad.  They are about the gain and distribution of the ‘Returns/ Fay’i’ [viii] (traditionally explained as the enemy’s land, crops, possessions which are surrendered without battle.  On the other hand, what people call ‘war-booty’ is ‘ghaneemah/ acquisition’[ix] in Arabic (root-verb ‘ghanama;’ see 9 instances in Qur’an).
These verses indicate that these ‘Returns’ should be distributed ONLY to certain categories of persons, ALL who are in need, giving the Prophet, peace upon him, free license to distribute between the needy in society, as he sees fit.  This was unusual policy in warfare, where it was usual only for those who participated to get a fair share (it seems that these verses may have favored the poor among the Emigrants who had escaped to Medina and left all their possessions behind in Mecca). 
The REASON given for this measure was ‘so that the ‘exchange’ (of stocks/ financial power) would NOT be between the Self-sufficient among you.’  What a valid reason!
Then, at the end of the verse (after giving the Prophet license to distribute as he sees fit and giving the reason for that), Verse 7 concludes by telling listeners that ‘what the Messenger advances to you, then take it, and what he forbids you from, refrain from it, and be aware of God, indeed God is severe in meting out the consequence.’

Important Note:
Although this verse is specific in subject-matter (it is about the gain and distribution of Returns), and refers to Muhammad as the ‘Messenger’ to underline this measure as part of his Divinely received Message which should be obeyed… despite that, some scholars have taken this verse as a sweeping indication that ALL reports of the Prophet’s ‘Saheeh’ Sayings/ Hadeeth’ (delivered through an ‘authenticated/ SaHeeh’ channel of transmitters) are to be obeyed even when they contradict Qur’an.  In fact, they have allowed such ‘Hadeeth’ to ‘abrogate’ Qur’an, overriding the verses and rendering them null and void. (Put ‘hadeeth’ in ‘Search.’  Also see ‘abrogation.’)

What many of us overlook is that when the Qur’an asks the Faithful to ‘obey,’ it ALWAYS refers to the ‘Messenger’…. NEVER the Prophet!
(We spoke of this earlier. Put ‘messenger prophet obey’ in ‘Search’).
The Qur’an is precise.  It helps us differentiate between:

·      His role as Messenger, wherein he was an infallible ‘Deliverer’ of God’s Message for all time.
·    His role as a Prophet-Leader of his people, wherein despite being the best of men, he remained fallible and therefore had to stand publicly corrected by God -in the Qur’an itself (!)- when he made mistakes.

4.     Verse 8 follows up on the subject of distribution with the words ‘TO the needy Emigrants…,’ where it mentions the good deeds and sincere intention of these Meccan Believers who had to come to Yethrib/ Medina after they were dispossessed of their homes and their wealth, and concludes with the statement ‘…it is they who are THE Truthful.’  Here we recall what we spoke of earlier about the meaning of ‘Saadiq’ in Arabic[x].

Verse 9 then links another group to the first (with the conjunction ‘and’), speaking in glowing terms of their hosts (the ‘AnSaar/ Helpers’) the fine people of Yethrib/ Medina, mentioning their generosity and the fact that many of them had not only shared their belongings and sustenance, but had even favored the Emigrants above themselves in whatever little they had!  The Qur’an records even their feelings, that they did not begrudge others what they had, that they LOVED those who came to them for refuge, that they gave eagerly, without any hesitation or regret.
The verse concludes with a very important statement, saying that ‘…. whoever is safeguarded from his own covetousness, it is THEY WHO ARE THE SUCCESSFUL.’ 
Dear Reader:
The steps to ‘Success/ FalaaH’ in the Qur’an are quite clear, and they begin with this first step: 
Ridding ourselves of our innate drive to covet, our love for ownership, and the selfishness of the ‘Me’ and the ‘Mine.’  It is not enough that we give, but we have to LOVE giving more than having or keeping! 

It is when calamities strike us that we realize what is truly important….may God forgive us.  These are materialistic times, where everything is dictated by financial gain, including people’s lives, but the tragedy is that we do not admit to that:  

Humanity may have progressed away from blatant slavery, but ‘slavishness’ is everywhere!

PAGE 547 Arabic Qur’an

5.  The last two verses mentioned the ‘Emigrants’ and the ‘Helpers’ in such glowing terms, they had us wishing we were among them! 
Our wishes are not in vain, as we understand from Verse 10, which adds a third category to the first two, linking it as well with the conjunction ‘and’..!

‘AND Those who came AFTER THEM will be saying: ‘Our Lord Sustainer, forgive us, and forgive our Brethren who preceded us in Faith, and do not render in our hearts/ minds (any) grudge/ resentment[xi] of the Faithful, our Lord Sustainer, You are Gracious, Unceasingly Compassionate!’

We can, and should try to be in this third group.  How?
By being worthy of the label ‘the Faithful’ in all we feel and do, AS WELL AS eliminating covetousness and grudge from our hearts/minds!

6.  After these three beautiful verses, Verse 11 mentions Those who had ‘Camouflaged’ (put ‘escape hypocrites’ in ‘Search.’ Note how ‘Hypocrites’ have literally ‘exited’ Faith, ‘camouflaged’ their true beliefs and feelings, and pretended to be Believers). 
It is these masters of deception counted among the ‘Believers’ of Yethrib who had actually lied when they encouraged their Brethren -who had Denied from among the People of the Compilation- to go out (and break their pact) against the Believers, saying that they would go out with them and defend them in any battle… and the verse concludes with the statement: ‘…. and God bears witness that they are indeed Liars.’

Verse 12-14 continue, with God Himself telling us about such persons:
·      What they promise yet would never do.
·      How they would turn their backs on any battle.
·      How their hearts/ minds are more IN AWE of the Faithful than of God Himself, because they do not ‘discern/ comprehend/ yafqahoon.’  
·      (Still referring to the same two groups, the Hypocrites plus the Deniers from among the People of the Compilation).. that they would never join together to fight the Faithful unless they could do so from within fortified towns or from behind walls.
·      That the injury they inflict one another is severe, and although Believers may think them together (united), their hearts/ minds are diverse (divided), which is because they are a people who do not reason (or secure comprehension).

Sadly, dear Reader, much of this now applies to many of us who call ourselves ‘Believers.’ 
I think it may be because many of us have become ‘Hypocrites,’ saying one thing and doing another, neither truly believing in God nor fully trusting Him.

Verses 15-16 give us two examples, beginning with the words ‘As in the likeness of…’ First, Verse 15 likens the people (just mentioned) to those before them who had tasted painful suffering due to what they had done, then, Verse 16 likens their prodding of others with false promises of support, to what the Deviant/ SheyTaan had said to the Cognizant Human, prodding him to deny.

Dear Reader:  Notice that, after the Cognizant Human had denied, just as SheyTaan had asked him to, SheyTaan announces his disassociation and disavowal of the Human, stating quite clearly that he (SheyTaan) fears God, the Lord Sustainer of all Beings!  Now, attempting to explain this does not make it easier to comprehend.  How is it that SheyTaan, who acknowledges God’s Sustainership/ Lordship over all Beings, even fears Him… how is it that he also disobeys Him?  This seems to tell us something important about Arrogance, in that it is deaf to all but the tune of its own inflated Self.

I am not saying that I understand or can explain this, but I know that we should shed the ‘Biblical’ image of two comparative ‘powers,’ which are the power of ‘Good’ versus ‘Evil..’ and the assumption that there is a ‘Lord of Darkness’ as well as a ‘Lord of Light.’  There is only One Lord, and He is Lord of All.  He IS THE Light of the Exalted Expanses and the EARTH.  He IS Truth.  All other ‘deities’ are False.  And all He asks of us is that we help one another grow, and in doing so, keep advancing and rising to higher elevations of Being.

PAGE 548 Arabic Qur’an

7.   Verse 17 announces the shared Consequence of these two, both the denying Human and the SheyTaan: 
BOTH in the Fire, stuck fast therein, and that is the recompense of Wrong-Doers (remember what we said about ‘Jahannam,’ that it is an abyss?).
Stunted existence.  Destruction rather than Growth.  End of story.

And now we arrive at the ‘khaatimah/ closing section’ to this Chapter (verses 18-24).  This happens to be one of the most moving and oft-recited parts of the Qur’an (and I truly wish it were possible to bring out its beauty in English)! 
Please listen to it in Arabic, dear Reader (click here in Tanzil, then scroll down to ‘Recitation’ choose Al- Afasy.  Begin listening.  Beautiful!)

Here we find Verses 18-19 speaking directly to Those Who have Attained Faith,’ calling upon them/ us,[xii] telling them/us to:
·      Be aware of God.
· Let each Self look to/ anticipate what it had put forward for tomorrow.
·      And be aware of God.
·      God is Fully Acquainted with all that you do.
·      And be not like those who forgot God, so he made them forget their own Selves; these are the Breachers of Faith (Faasiq).

It is quite interesting here to note that the call to ‘awareness’ in this verse is addressed to Those who have attained Faith’ see all seven Qur’anic verses.  The major difference in this verse however, is that the call to awareness appears TWICE, drawing our attention first to the effects of our actions which must befall us, and then to the fact that God is fully acquainted with all that we do.
After reading and rereading these verses I am convinced that the ‘ghad/ morrow[xiii]’ mentioned here is NOT what most commentators have postulated, ie, the ‘Hereafter,’ but rather, it is about THE CAUSE AND EFFECT of every deed we do, and the expectation that our deeds do lay down our future, as we speak, now, IN LIFE. 

That is why the verse literally says, let each Self ‘look forward/ anticipate’ what it has presented to its future!  The worst thing we could do is ‘forget ourselves,’ a situation of utter apathy, which we seem to arrive at after having first forgotten God.

8.   After the arguments in preceding verses, Verse 20 gives us a statement, where we are told ‘la yastawee/ not equal are’ the companions of the Fire and the Companions of the Garden… the Companions of the Garden are Those who have received Deliverance/ Salvation.
Then, by showing us what would have happened to a rock mountain, had it been the ‘recipient’ of the Qur’an, Verse 21 illustrates the IMPACT which the Qur’an should have had upon the Cognizant Human, had we recognized it for what it is; the Qur’an should have given us tranquility, calm remembrance of God, and awe in Him…. had we received it as it should have been received.

9.     Finally, we arrive at the last three verses of this Chapter, all of which begin with the statement: ‘He is Allah..’  …announcing WHO God is.

NOTE, dear Reader, that Verse 22 announces TWICE who He is:

First, that 'HE IS ALLAH,' no god but He, Knower of the Unwitnessed and the Witnessed, and secondly, that ‘HE IS AL RAHMAAN, al Raheem,’ The Unique Generator/ Creator, the Unceasingly Compassionate.

After that, Verse 23 repeats that 'HE IS ALLAH,' no god but He, and then continues with eight beautiful ‘Attributes,’ ending by glorifying God above what they associate with Him.

Finally, Verse 24 concludes with five more ‘attributes,’, announcing that His are the most Beautiful of Attributes.
I do understand how someone could take ‘Al Rahmaan’ to be an ‘attribute,’ since I once thought so too myself.
But now, after research and especially understanding HQ 17:110 which indicates that we may call Him ‘Allah’ or Al Rahmaan,’ and whichever we call Him, to Him belong the most beautiful Attributes… (also HQ 2:163, 67:29)…. I see this issue quite differently.

Dear Reader:
Here are these beautiful verses, in both explanations of Ali and Asad:

“God is He, than Whom there is no other god;- Who knows (all things) both secret and open; He, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
God is He, than Whom there is no other god;- the Sovereign, the Holy One, the Source of Peace (and Perfection), the Guardian of Faith, the Preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible, the Supreme: Glory to God! (High is He) above the partners they attribute to Him.
He is God, the Creator, the Evolver, the Bestower of Forms (or Colours). To Him belong the Most Beautiful Names: whatever is in the heavens and on earth, doth declare His Praises and Glory: and He is the Exalted in Might, the Wise.”


“GOD IS HE save whom there is no deity: the One who knows all that is beyond the reach of a created being’s perception, as well as all that can be witnessed by a creature’s senses or mind: He, the Most Gracious, the Dispenser of Grace.

God is He save whom there is no deity: the Sovereign Supreme, the Holy, the One with whom all salvation rests, the Giver of Faith, the One who determines what is true and false, the Almighty, the One who subdues wrong and restores right, the One to whom all greatness belongs! 
Utterly remote is God, in His limitless glory, from anything to which men may ascribe a share in His divinity!

He is God, the Creator, the Maker who shapes all forms and appearances! 
His [alone] are the attributes of perfection. All that is in the heavens and on earth extols His limitless glory: for He alone is almighty, truly wise!

Peace unto all!

[i] Haven’t you noticed how the more ‘powerful’ someone is, the more their tendency for self-aggrandizement and whitewashing of their mistakes, while the tendency of the ‘less powerful’ is to exaggerate the other’s viciousness, exaggerate their own losses, and rehash past ‘injustices’ generation after generation?  This is especially true when a certain group feels threatened… as if the preservation of identity necessitates that they maintain a perception of victimhood.

All of this should be taken into account whenever we come across reported ‘stories’ of the Prophet’s life, peace upon him.  Here, the narrative is all about the Jewish tribe of Bani Nadeer.  But whenever it is mentioned, it is also followed by the alleged ‘story’ of ‘the massacre’ of Bani Qurayza which:

BASED ON QUR’ANIC EVIDENCE, I do NOT believe actually took place at all.
I believe that Ibn Ishaaq’s narrative, taken from Jewish sources generations after the fact, reflected that group’s ethos, and does not reflect what had actually taken place (see ‘New Light on the story of Banu Qurayza and the Jews of Medina’ by W. N. Arafat).  The narrative may have gained popularity amongst some Arabs due to their false bravado.

At any rate, that notorious narrative tells us that, after the banishment of Bani Nadeer, the tribe of ‘Bani Qurayza were all punished for treason,’ the men killed and the women and children taken as captives/slaves, and their possessions as booty.  But it is inconceivable that the Prophet would rule that a tribe of innocent people should be ‘punished’ for the misdeeds of a few of their elders, while the Qur’an says that no Self bears the burden of another, and tells us of Moses, peace upon him, who felt guilty and asked God’s forgiveness when he tried to defend his compatriot and ended up inadvertently killing his attacker…
So how is it that the Qur’an had NEITHER mentioned such an ‘important’ incident as that of Bani Qurayza, nor the so-called ‘ruling’ that all men should be killed as ‘punishment’!  What the Qur’an did mention, is a BATTLE in which some were killed and some taken captive.  That is why I believe there was a battle here, not a massacre. 
Furthermore, since we are talking of treason, do take a look at how treason was ‘punished’ in Europe in the 1500-1800’s, which would help us realize how everything is relative to its context.  Note however, that whatever the Prophet did, HAD to be relative to QUR’ANIC CONTEXT or else he would be reprimanded for it in the Qur’an.  When we recall the verses which tell us that he was sent as a ‘Mercy to all people,’ and there was ‘in the Messenger of God a good example’ for any who sought God and the Hereafter…. We realize that a ‘massacre’ does not fit at all, neither with his ‘job description,’ nor his known character.

[ii] The word ‘sabaHa’ is related to motion, most similar to swimming in water. Arabs have used this word to describe the fluidity of camels upon the mirage of desert sands, the galloping horses, the churning of ships through the waves & people going about their different chores.

حشر: السّوق والبعثُ والانبعاث.
وحشرات الأرض: دوابُّها­ الصغار، كاليرابيع والضِّباب وما أشبهها، فسمِّيت بذلك لكثرتها وانسياقها وانبعاثها.

[iv] I do NOT believe that any single ‘historic’ account should dictate how the Qur’an is explained (or that anything other than the Arabic language and Qur’anic context should alter our understanding of it)! 
As any scholar would know, the origin of the authoritative narrative of the Prophet’s life was Ibn Ishaq’s   - ابن اسحاق (85-153 A.H./ 703-767 A.D.), which he had compiled from the ORAL traditions of his time to serve as a history book for a child, the young son of the Abbasid Caliph Al Mansour أبو جعفر المنصور[iv].  His work was later abridged by Ibn Hisham (d. 218 A.H./ 833 A.D) ابن هشام- … and lost!  What exists today is Ibn Hisham’s narrative.
But we do know that Ibn Ishaaq said in his introduction: ‘Only God knows which of these narratives are true.

 ‘Daar’ does not simply mean ‘house/ home,’ which is ‘beyt’ in Arabic.  ‘Daar’ is more about the commune within which one lives and feels at home!
(دور) أصلٌ واحد يدلُّ على إحداق الشيء بالشيء من حوالَيه.والدار: القبيلة. قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم: "ألاَ أُنَبِّئكم بخَيْر دُورِ الأنصار؟". أراد بذلك القبائلَ. ومن ذلك الحديث الآخَر: "فلم تَبْقَ دارٌ إلاّ بُنِي فيها مَسجد". أي لم تَبق قبيلةٌ.
[vi] (رعب)أصولٌ ثلاثة: أحدها الخوف، والثاني المَلْء، والآخر القَطْع.
  فالأول الرَّعْب وهو الخَوف، رَعَبْتُه رَعْباً، والاسم الرُّعْب. ويقال إنّ الرَّعْبَ رُقْيةٌ، يزعمون أنهم يرْعَبون ذا السِّحْر بكلامٍ([24])، أي يُفْزِعونه. وفاعله راعبٌ ورَعَّاب.
  والأصل الآخر قولهم: سيلٌ راعبٌ، إذا مَلأَ الواديَ. ورعَبْتُ الحوضَ إذا ملأتَه.
  والثالث قولهم للشَّيء المقَطَّع: مُرَعَّب. ويقال للقِطعة من السَّنام رُعْبوبة. وتسمَّى الشَّطْبَة من النِّساء رُعبوبةً؛ تشبيهاً لها بقِطعة السنام. ويقال سَنامٌ مرعوبٌ إذا كان يقطُر دسَما.

[vii]   (خزو)أصلان: أحدهما السياسة، والآخر الإبعاد.
  فأمَّا الأول فقولهم خَزَوتُهُ، إذا سُسْتَه.
  وأمَّا الآخَر فقولُهم: أخزَاهُ الله، أي أبعَدَه ومَقَتَه. والاسم الخِزْي. ومن هذا الباب قولهم خَزِي الرّجل: استحيا مِن قُبْحِ فعله خَزَايةً، فهو خَزيان؛ وذلك أنّه إذا فعل ذلك واستحيا تباعَدَ ونأى.  

فأ: تدل على الرجوع. يقال: فاء الفيء إذا رجع الظل من جانب المغرب إلى جانب المشرق، وكل رجوع فيء. قال الله تعالى: "...حتى تفيء إلى أمر الله..." (الحجرات ٩).  و يقال منه فيأت الشجرة، وتفيأت في فيئها. والفيء غنائم تؤخذ من المشركين أفاءها الله تعالى عليهم. قال الله سبحانه: "ما أفاء الله على رسوله من أهل القرى" (الحشر ٧).

غنم: يدل على إفادة شيء لم يُملَك من قبل ثم يختص به ما أخذ من مال المشركين بقهر وغَلَبة

[x] Being ‘true’ denotes strength and solidarity, probably because Truth is much more powerful than Falsehood!  We also learnt that ‘Friend’ in Arabic is ‘Sadeeq’ because there can be no friendship without truth and sincerity, which only strengthens and cements the relationship.  Isn’t Arabic beautiful?

[xi] غلل: يدل على تخلل شيء وثبات شيء كالشيء يُغْرَز. من ذلك قول العرب غللت الشيء في الشيء إذا أثبتّه فيه كأنك غرزته، ومنه الغلول في الغنم وهو أن يُخفى الشيء فلا يرد إلى القسم  كأن صاحبه قد غلّه بين ثيابه، ومن الباب الغل وهو الضغن ينغلُّ في الصدر.

[xii] The call to the Faithful is repeated in the Qur’an 89 times, and every time we hear it we listen closely (this is the 78th).
غدو: يدل على زمان.. الغَداة غَدَواتالغُدوة غُدَىً،

Let's TWEET this!

Tweet me!