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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Sunday, January 16, 2011

Day 307; Qur’an 100: 1-11 page 599

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.
Laleh Bakhtiar’s explanation of this Chapter.

سورة العاديات
'The Over-Runners'

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:
This is one of the earlier Makkan Surahs. In the depth of its mystery and the rhythm and sublimity of its language and symbolism, it may be compared with S.79. Its subject matter is the irresistible nature of spiritual power and knowledge, contrasted with unregenerate man's ingratitude, pettiness, helplessness, and ignorance..”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

....since verses 6-11 are undoubtedly condemnatory, we must conclude that the first five verses, too, have the same or at least, a similar - character. This character becomes at once obvious if we dissociate ourselves from the preconceived notion that the imagery of "the chargers" is used here in a laudatory sense. In fact, the opposite is the case. Beyond any doubt, "the chargers" symbolize the erring human soul or self - a soul devoid of all spiritual direction, obsessed and ridden by all manner of wrong, selfish desires, madly, unseeingly rushing onwards, unchecked by conscience or reason, blinded by the dust-clouds of confused and confusing appetites, storming into insoluble situations and, thus, into its own spiritual destruction. “


Although I am inclined to agree with Muhammad Asad who thinks that the first few verses are not about a 'battle-scene,' I do not adopt his premise that they are about the erring human self. I do see his logic, but I envisage all these descriptions as pertaining to Natural Phenomena, hitting our atmosphere to end life on earth as we know it.

Indeed, if this short Chapter had been about a literal battle-field (booty and all), it would be warning us against it, since the rest of the verses turn to reprimand the Cognizant Human, especially for his Greed (i).

PAGE 599 Arabic Qur’an
1. This Chapter begins with a letter و which is understood as 'waw al-qasam,' a 'vow.' As we know, vowing 'By the ….' serves to draw the listeners' attention as it leads up to information of supreme importance (put 'vow' in 'Search').

The important information here is in Verses 6- 11, which summarize what we need to know about Human Nature, the 'gathering' of the sum of what's in our hearts/ minds (for judgement !!!), and God's complete knowledge of everything about us!
The subject of the vow (after the و) is the 'Aadiyaat/ Overrunners/ Encroachers/ Transgressors (ii).'

See 10 similar occurrences of its root-verb in Qur'an. Note that Aadiyaat is the feminine of Aadoon, Aadeen -from the masculine singula Aad. Remember that natural phenomena are always feminine plural, as are animals and objects.

We are told here that these 'Overrunners' do so in a manner which is 'DhabHaa' (an Adverb, describing their manner of 'overrunning'). Our Lexicon tells us that the root-verb DhabaHa
ضبح (iii) with its two connotations, is related either to sound or shape:
-Sound: the sound of wolves.
-Shape: incendiary fire, something burnt into cinders and ash; also, a sparking flint-stone is a 'maDhbooHa'.

So Verse 1 is about entities which 'overrun,' sound like wolves/ are fiery, incinerating, and leave ashes in their wake.

2. Verse 2 is about al-Mooriyaat (iv), the 'Sparkers/ Concealers' also feminine plural, 'sparking/ lighting' (again and again). This description could be of the same entities performing other actions, or they could be about completely different entities, following the first.
Note that the French words 'moire' and 'moiré' are derivatives of the Arabic word مواري -mooari- from the same root-verb we are now discussing, about light being reflected here and hidden there. There are many European words of Arabic origin (which few know about); put 'Etymology' in 'Search.'

3. Verses 3 -5 refer to the 'Raiders/ Mugheeraat' of 'SubH/ morning/ red (v)' which, in it (in the SubH) give out (vi) a "naq'e" (نقع vii)), and center themselves within a gathering.

The word "naq'e" has several connotations in some dictionaries. In the one we use here (which is the oldest) it has only two, related to 'soaking; lying in still water' and to 'a loud noise.' But another, wide-spread interpretation of this verse says that "naq'e" is 'dust,' and especially the dust of battle, which seems supported by the old poem I spoke of in the footnote. So all I can say is.. Allahu A'lam/ God knows best:

Each generation would naturally understand these verses according to its knowledge at the time.
I do believe that this is about a scene of great magnificence, as our earth gets hit by natural phenomena. Others may or may not agree, but here is someone who has a similar opinion, although he sees this phenomena as something which already exists, namely the Northern Lights, with their distinctive 'moiré effect.

Then, after the introductory verses, comes the main topic which these verses were leading up to:

4. Verses 6-7 assert that the Cognizant Human/ Insaan does indeed 'break-away (كند viii)' from his Lord, and that He/ he (God/ the human) is Witness to that.
This is SUCH an important statement of fact!

A major symptom of having 'broken-away' from our Lord is not practicing 'shukr' in life. 'Shukr' is not about simple gratitude of feeling to Him, but it is about accepting what little we may have been given, and then: Making the most out of it, until it achieves abundance! How many of us do that? May God forgive us and help us mend...

New Readers: Put words in Search.

5. Verse 8 adds -with an 'and'- that he (the human) is in 'intense/ severe/ shadeed' (ix) LOVE of (worldly) good/ 'kheyr,' which is a negative trait here, as in HQ 38:32.

'Kheyr' does appear in several verses to mean 'worldly-good' such as wealth, power.. etc.. which people clutch onto, and try not to share!

6. Verses 9- 11 present DIRE warning!

Doesn't he (the Cognizant Human) know that when the contents of the graves are scattered about, and the contents of the hearts and minds (x) are collected (حصلxi) .. that THEIR LORD, OF THEM, AT THAT TIME, IS FULLY ACQUAINTED???

Since every question in the Qur'an receives an answer, even in silence, and now we know that the contents of our hearts and minds are to be collected...we better say something here!

"Balaa Rabbana...Yes, indeed, our Lord!
Do forgive us and let us enter into your Mercy, for You are the Most Merciful of all those who have mercy.."
(This is similar to what Prophet Moses said, peace upon him (HQ 7:151) after he returned to his people with the Tablets and Commandments, only to find them worshipping the calf!)

Peace unto all!

Perhaps the toughest thing for us, as we attempt to understand such analogous ‘mutashaabihaat’ verses, is to restrain ourselves so as to stay within the parameters of Language and Context.  And although we cannot help but wonder, we must make sure that our voices and our pens DO NOT WANDER, which is why we are told to seek refuge in God.

When reading/ reciting/ perusing the Qur’an, we are absolutely required, without exception, to ‘seek refuge in God' from deviating.'
For the Messenger, peace upon him, this seems related to his perfect delivery of it.  As for us, it is to remind us to be careful NOT to misunderstand and misrepresent its verses, as we activate the six components of IQRA.

عدو: يدلُّ على تجاوُزٍ في الشيء وتقدُّمٍ لما ينبغي أن يقتصر عليه. من ذلك العَدْو، وهو الحُضْر. تقول: عدا يعدو عَدْواً، وهو عادٍ. قال الخليل: التعدّي: تجاوز ما ينبغي أن يُقْتَصَر عليه. وتقرأ هذه الآية على وجهين: {فَيَسُبُّوا الله عَدْواً بغيرِ علمٍ} و{عُدُوَّاً} [الأنعام 108]. والعادي: الذي يعدو على الناس ظُلْماً وعُدواناً. وفلانٌ يعدو أمرَكَ، وما عَدَا أنْ صَنَع كذا. ويقال من عَدْوِ الفرس: عَدَوَانٌ، أي جيِّد العَدْوِ وكثيرُه. وذئب عَدَوَانٌ: يعدُو على الناس.

ضبح: أصلانِ صحيحان: أحدهما صوتٌ، والآخَرُ تغيُّرُ لون من فعلِ نار.
فالأَوَّل قولُهم: ضَبَحَ الثّعلبُ يَضْبَح ضَبْحاً. وصَوْتُهُ الضُّبَاح، وهو ضابح..
وأمَّا الأصل الثاني فالضَّبْح: إحراقُ أعالي العُود بالنار. والضِّبْح: الرَّماد. والحجارة المضبوحة هي قَدَّاحة النّار، التي كأنها محترقة..ويقال الانضباح تغيُّرُ اللون إلى السواد
وري: بناءٌ على غير قياس، وكلِمه أفراد
يقال وَرَى الزّندُ يَرِي وَرْياً، وَوَراهُ، خَرجَتْ نارُه. وحكى بعضهم وَرِيَ يَرِي، مثل ولِيَ يَلِي.
واللَّحم الواري: السَّمين. والوَرَى: الخَلْق. وأمَّا قولهم ورَاءَكَ فإنَّه يكون من خَلف، ويكون من قُدّام.

صبح: هو لونٌ من الألوان قالوا أصله الحُمْرة. قالوا: وسمِّيَ الصُّبْحُ صُبْحاً لحُمْرَته، كما سمِّيَ المِصْباح مِصباحاً لحُمْرَته. قالوا: ولذلك يقال وجهٌ صَبيحٌ. والصَّباح: نُورُ النَّهارِ. وهذا هو الأصل ثمُ يُفَرَّع. قال الأعشى:
<<به تَرْعُفُ الألفَ إِذ أُرْسِلَتْ  *** غَدَاةَ الصَّبَاحِ إِذا النَّقْعُ ثار ا>>
ويقال أتيتهُ أصبوحةَ كلِّ يومٍ، ولقيتُهُ ذا صَبوح. والمصابيح: الأقداح التي يُصطَبَح بها. ومن الكلمة الأولى: الصَّبَح: شدَّة حُمرةٍ في الشعَر؛ يقال أسدٌ أصبَحُ.

The line of poetry above is by a famous poet who was reciting poetry before and throughout the early time of Revelation, and is reported to have written a poem in Muhammad's honor, peace upon him. The excerpted line is of an image similar to the one in Verse 4... depicting a battle-field.

أثر: لـه ثلاثة أصول: تقديم الشيء، وذكر الشيء، ورسم الشيء الباقي.
قال الخليل: لقد أثِرْتُ بأن أفعل كذا، وهو همٌّ في عَزْم. وتقولُ افعل يا فلان هذا آثِراً ما، وآثِرَ [ذي] أثير،

(نقع:  النون والقاف والعين أصلانِ صحيحان: أحدهما يدلُّ على استقرارِ شيءٍ كالمائعِ في قراره، والآخر على صوتٍ من الأصوات.
فالأوّل نَقَع الماء في مَنْقعه: استقرّ. واستَنْقع الشيءُ في الماء. والنَّقُوع: ما نُقِع في الماء، كدواءٍأو نبيذ. والمِنْقَع ذلك الإناء. والمِنْقَع كالقُدَيرة للصَّبيّ يُطرح فيه اللَّبن ويُطعَمه. والنَّقيع: شراب يتَّخَذ من زَبيب، كأنَّ الزَّبيب يُنقَع لـه. والنَّقِيع: الحَوْض يُنقَع فيه التَّمر. والنَّقِيع والنَّقْع: الماء الناقع. وماءٌ ناقعٌ كالنَّاجع، كأنَّه استقرَّ قرارَه فكَسَر الغُلَّة. وكذلك النَّقُوع. والنَّقيع: البئر الكثيرة الماء. ونَقْع البئر الذي جاء في الحديث: ماؤها، كأنها قرارٌ له. والأنقوعة: وَقْبَةُ الثَّرِيد. وقولهم: "هو شَرَّابٌ بِأَنْقُعٍ"، أي مُعاوِدٌ للأمر مرَّةً بعد مرة.

كند:  يدلُّ على القَطْع. يقال كَنَدَ الحبْلَ يكنُده كَنْداً. والكَنُود: الكفور للنِّعمة. وهو من الأوَّل، لأنَّه يكنُد الشكر، أي يقطعُه. ومن الباب: الأرضُ الكَنود، وهي التي لا تُنبِت.

شد: يدلُّ على قوةٍ في الشيءِ، وفُروعُه ترجِع إليه. من ذلك شَدَدْتُ العقد شَدّاً أشُدُّه. والشَّدّة: المرّة الواحدة. وهذا القياسُ في الحرْب أيضاً. ])
ومن الباب: الشّديد والمتشدّد: [البَخِيل. قال الله سبحانه: {وَإِنَّهُ لِحُبِّ الخَيْرِ لَشَدِيدٌ}  [العاديات 8].])
والأَشُدُّ: العشرون، ويقال أربعون سنة. وبعضهم يقولون لا واحدَ لها، ويقال بل واحدها شَدٌّ.


Literally chest/ head 'Sadr.'

 حصل: هو جمع الشيء، ولذلك سمِّيت حَوصلةُ الطائر؛ لأنّه يجمع فيها. ويقال حصَّلت الشيءَ تحصيلا. وزعم ناسٌ من أهل اللغة أنّ أصل التحصيل استخراجُ الذهب أو الفضّة من الحجر أو من تراب المَعدِن؛ ويقال لفاعله المحصِّل.  

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