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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


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A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Day 221; Qur’an 38:27-44; Page 455-456

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!

Today’s Reading mentions Prophet Solomon and contains a few concepts which have become the staple of many a legend, and which we can only TRY to understand. 

Another remarkable story is that of Prophet Job, peace upon both.  These 4 verses mentioning Job, need us to be wakeful as we go through them. 
Unfortunately, dear Reader, they have been explained BIBLICALLY by Muslim scholars, and everyone has taken their explanation for granted (despite Qur’anic evidence to the contrary).

As you shall see for yourself, dear Reader:  This was a huge, HUGE mistake! 
Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter.
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.


PAGE 455 Arabic Qur’an.

1.  Verses 27- 29 are eye-openers. 
Firstly, they give us Purpose which the Deniers seem blinded to. 
Secondly, they present opposing character-traits which help us better ourselves.  Thirdly, they offer definitions which help explain concepts.
Asad’s argument is interesting.

As Regular Readers know, opposites always help us understand what the words mean!

“Or do We render Those who attained Faith and performed Good deeds akin to the Corruptive in the earth? Or do We render The Aware (persons) akin to the Explosive (those who erupt into violence)?” (38:28)

How could anyone presume that God would render these two sets of opposites alike?  Just as there is no comparison in their opposing character-traits and behavior, there can be no comparison in their worth… or in their recompense!

Here we recall the story of the two ‘sons of Adam,’ the Aware and the Aggressor (commonly known as Abel and Cain).  Remember that the presence of Awareness 'taqwa -تقوى ' negates Aggression 'udwaanعدوان-’- and vice versa (one cannot be present unless the other is absent).  It is the same with those who erupt into violence; Awareness is its only true deterrent!

Those who are ‘explosive/ erupt in violence’ are called ‘fujjaar.’  Other forms with similar meaning are ‘faajir- fajara.’  For definition of root-verb ‘fajara’ see July 6th.

Dear Reader,
Awareness is the only true deterrent of violence and aggression!
Furthermore, Faith and good deeds go hand-in-hand with Awareness, just as Corruption goes hand-in-hand with Violence. 
It is up to each of us to attempt to exercise the Qur’anic virtues which seem to be inherent in the Faithful, regardless of how these exemplary persons are treated!

Easy?  No.
Possible?  Yes. 
Commendable?  Definitely.

And there is more: 
If we were able to tap into the Compilation’s ‘abiding benefit’ so as to determine the intent of its Signs, and REMEMBER….. we could be among ‘Ulul albaab’:  Those of Insight and Commitment!

“A Compilation We have sent down unto you, of abiding benefit, so that they may determine (the outcome/ intent of) its Signs, and so that Those of Insight and Commitment may Remember.” (38:29)

From Posting of June 7th:

“Those with Insight are ulul albaab’ (أولوا الأباب)  We discussed them earlier, when we came across the term in the verses HQ 3:191-194. We mentioned then, that ‘Lub’ means the core of something, and that Arabs used it to mean 'mind,' as in 'labeeb,' intelligent, or witty.  But perhaps what is most important about this word is the following:
Derived from the root verb ‘labba’ it refers to being physically or emotionally settled and attached; committed.  The ‘talbiyah’ of Pilgrimage (Hajj) comes from that root verb ('Labbeyk Allaahuma Labbeyk,'  the words which announce a pilgrim's dedication and commitment to God). 

Here we have no less than FIVE beautiful verses 20- 21- 22- 23- 24 describing the characteristics of Those of Insight- ‘Ulul Albaab.’
This is what we should seek, so please read them carefully.

From fulfilling our Covenant with God, to maintaining and strengthening our bonds with each other, to being always in-awe of God while fearing the final rendering of account, to practicing Forbearance as we seek His Direction, to establishing regular Prayer, to spreading His Bounty by spending on others -both discreetly and publicly- to repelling harm with our good deeds… to Those of Insight, who do all that.. are the most beautiful Rewards:
Fulfillment in the Hereafter, as they enter Eternal Gardens together with those who qualify- of their forefathers, spouses, children- and the angels entering upon them from every gate:  “Peace upon you in that you were Forbearing; how excellent is the Fulfillment of the Hereafter!”

May WE -and all those we love- be among them!”

See also Sept 4th .

2.  Verses 30- 34 mention an incident before which Prophet Solomon, peace upon him, was acknowledged as being ‘an excellent Worshipper, oft-returning to God.’  This incident relates to the display before him of ‘well-bred steeds’/al Ssaafinaatul[i] Jiyaad’[ii] الصافنات الجياد which he obviously derived great pleasure in. 

Aside: The incident itself is not clear (different readings might be obtained by referring the feminine pronouns to different feminine subjects) and the variant explanations are too many to recount… some even involving winged horses!
At any rate, he did love them; whether or not he was so ‘taken by them that he missed his prayer’ and then ‘passed his sword over their legs and their necks, sacrificing them in repentance’… is not for us to know.

Verse 34 seems, to us today,  not very clear. 
To begin with, it mentions Solomon as being ‘put to a test whereby one’s true character comes out; 'fatana- فتن' literally denotes 'trial by fire,' as in "trying the metal by fire to extract its gold.[iii]" So what was this conclusive trial?

This trial was him being ‘tested’ when a ‘jasad’ was flung upon his ‘kursi.’   But our problem is that we are neither sure what the word ‘jasad,’ OR the word ‘kursi’ refer to, and there are many different explanations to this verse as well.

·   ‘Jasad’is defined in our 1,000 year old Lexicon[iv] as something gathered, a hard object; what is congealed; the Qur’an shows us that it is inanimate; something that does not require ‘food’ of any kind (HQ21:8).
·   'Kursi" according to our Arabic lexicon, is from 'karasa[v]' to stack or pile; to AMASS (a thick stack of papers is called 'kurrasah’).

In an earlier explanation we translated it as ‘Dominion/ Knowledge’ since it was related to all God’s Creation… ‘amassed.’  It is important to know that ‘kursi’ appears only twice in the Qur’an; here, and in the Verse of Dominion/ Knowledge HQ2:256).

Aside:  I was told that our present understanding of ‘kursi’ to mean ‘seat,’ comes from the Bedouin act of ‘sitting’ atop a pile of animal-skins.  Therefore, the word ‘kursi’ originally had no relation to what we call today ‘throne’ - ‘chair’- ‘stool’… all unknown to desert Arabs. 
Furthermore, we still call a ‘stack of paper’ a ‘kurrasah.’

So, perhaps he atoned for what he had earlier cherished by rejecting it willfully himself and contemplating the lifeless mass in front of him.....or perhaps what he had cherished ended up dead (due to a sudden disease of some kind) which spread throughout his entire dominion. 
Only God knows what took place before he ‘returned’ to God ثم أناب ..
So, rather than get carried away by speculation, we should simply learn from the lessons presented.  

There are many lessons to learn here, but we shall mention the most obvious:
-Firstly, that everything we cherish on this earth could disappear in an instant.
-Secondly, that our love for what we cherish should not stand in the way of our love for the Remembrance of God.
-And thirdly, that the loss of what we cherish is a 'trial by fire' which proves our true character, and our worth.

Any reasonable person would agree that, if we were to choose what to cherish, it makes more sense to cherish what is constant and everlasting... but sadly... most of what we own has a date of 'expiration':

Actually, the only things we truly own, and which do not 'expire'... are our deeds.
Shouldn't we therefore make sure that what we do is worthy of love, and that what we love is worthy of our effort?

Let us love whomever and whatever we want PROVIDED that the Remembrance of God is foremost in our hearts.  With God's Remembrance filling our consciousness, we would then find ourselves gravitating naturally towards what is wholesome and true, and our hearts beating faster for what is worth cherishing.
Let us begin to do that today, in honor of this lesson provided to us through the story of Prophet Solomon, peace upon him... and through his 'trial':

As Solomon was ‘tried,’ his true character came out, after which he passed the test admirably.  This Qur’anic account, as Yusuf Ali indicates, stands in stark contradiction to the Old Testament:

“The Qur’an, unlike the Old Testament, represents Solomon as a righteous king, not as an idolater, doing "evil in the sight of the Lord" (1 Kings. xi. 6)”.

In Verse 35 Solomon asks God’s forgiveness AND also seems to pray for the chance to prove that no earthly possession could ever sway him again (which might be why he asked for something forever unmatched).  We do gain a different perspective when we see his request as a ‘self-challenge,’ but only God knows why he would ask for something bearing so great a responsibility!

3.  Verses 36- 39 describe the ‘powers’ which were granted to Solomon, and were to remain unmatched in others.  He was told that he had a choice with regard to this ‘gift:’ either to bestow freely upon others or to withhold.
This gift seems to have been (as I understand it today):

·  The ‘Wind,’ placed at his service.

·   The ‘Leaders’ of TWO fields of practice, Construction بناء and ‘underlying knowledge’غوص- perhaps the planners...also placed at his service.

See definition of ‘ghawSs [vi] below (where we understand that ‘diving into knowledge’ requires individuals who can also bring to light what is obscure to most). 
It is SO interesting, dear Reader, to remember that a ‘sheytaan’ can also mean a ‘leader’ as in HQ2:14.  It is important to know that Arabic commentators have explained the term ‘their Shayaateen’ as ‘their Leaders’ (شياطينهم هم رؤساؤهم)... while in English, when we study ten side-by-side translations –click tab on Right- we notice that ONLY ONE interpreter got it right!

·   At his service were others who were ‘fettered together,’… perhaps people riding animals pulling and lifting together, or ‘slave-workers’…الله أعلم- only God knows.

Anyway, these details offered material for many legends and ‘fairy tales:’

Was it the ‘Wind’ -or a ‘flying carpet’?  Were they ‘Leaders of their Fields’ -or ‘Satans’?  Did Solomon control human/animal ‘workers’ - or ‘genies’? 

 I don't think we need answer these questions.
We should, however, keep an open mind and not discount ‘miracles’ of nature, especially since we do know that other Prophets/ Messengers were aided by them.
As for 'jinns' and such, put the words 'jinn' and 'magic' in 'Search this Site.' 

In Verse 40 we find the Qur’an repeating, for Solomon, the rewards which awaited his father David, peace be upon all God’s Messengers (see Verse 25).

4.  And now we come to Verses 41- 44 which mention Prophet Job, peace upon him.  These verses are quite straightforward, IF we read them without preconceived interpretations:

·   In the first verse the Qur’an tells of Prophet Job calling unto his Lord:
“And remember our Worshipper Job when he called unto his Lord that the Deviant/ Sheytaan has touched me with exhaustion and suffering.”

·   In the next verse, he gets relief, as God commands him directly:
“Prod forward with your foot: This is a cool/calm/infinite bath, and a drink!”

The verb ‘irkuDd’ اركض [vii] denotes spurring a mount forward, while the word ‘baared’بارد[viii] has 4 connotations, among which are ‘coldness,’ ‘calmness,’ and also being ‘infinite’ which seems to denote a spring.
(The first two connotations could help us better understand the verses which mention God commanding the fire to be ‘calmness/coolness’ and ‘peace’ upon Abraham HQ21:69!)

PAGE 456 Arabic Qur’an.

·   Verse 43 is an interpolation, which departs from the direct address, speaking OF him in the third person, telling listeners that God granted him his family and their like (in number or kind) as a Mercy and Reminder to those of understanding/insight.

·   Then, Verse 44 returns to another direct command:

“And take a medley by your hand/ power, then ‘iDdrib’ with it, and do not falter; We have indeed found him (to be) Forbearing; how excellent a Worshipper, he is indeed oft-returning!

·    Let us first explain ‘Ddighth’ ضغث/ أضغاث[ix]:
This word denotes a ‘disordered medley.’  It appears twice as plural in the Qur’an, denoting a ‘disordered medley’ of dreams.
It could indicate ‘confusion’ as in not knowing the reality of something, and it could indicate a handful of ‘rods, reeds, or grasses.’  

·   Next, the CRUCIAL verb ‘Ddaraba’ضرب :
Prophet Job was commanded to ‘iDdrib’ with this ‘medley’…. and to do so without faltering.
Note that it indicates all the following actions, literally and figuratively:
To strike, mix, hit, beat, palpitate, imprint, hurry, get up, fall upon, set out, set-up, go away, prevent, agree, dehydrate, ice-over, restrain, make an example, stitch, distance oneself, set-up camp, to relieve oneself (defecate).  Related words are about one’s nature and character-traits, being skinny, close in likeness, swimming, etc.. etc..!

·   The verb ‘Hhanath’ [x]حنث denotes ‘faltering’ (in the fulfillment of something).  Here, he is commanded not to falter- PERIOD.  This indicates not faltering with regard to THESE commands, right here. 

When these verses are read within Qur’anic context, with their words understood according to linguistic definitions, we might understand them thus:

A. After being commanded to prod forward, and upon finding a cool body of water (a spring) which was perfect for bathing and drinking, he was commanded to take hold of a medley (of grasses), and strike with it (upon his afflicted body as he bathed) without faltering.

Or, if we take all three verses together, we might understand the sequence as follows:

B. After being commanded to prod forward, and upon finding a cool body of water (a spring) which was perfect for bathing and drinking, and also after being granted his family AND another with them, he was commanded to take hold of a medley (of rods), and set up camp, without faltering.

Elaboration is DEVIANCE, dear Reader…. but for us to understand how the mistaken interpretation came about, we shall continue with yet another ‘version’ we might possibly understand from these verses:

C. After being commanded to prod forward, and upon finding a cool body of water (a spring) which was perfect for bathing and drinking, and also after being granted his family AND another with them, he was commanded to take hold of a medley (of disordered illusions/ dreams he’d been suffering from), and strike them away/ distance himself from them, without faltering.

Do you see what is happening, dear Reader?
Little by little, we are leaving the precise Qur’anic context as we try to imagine SCENARIOS that fit in with our perception.  Now, this is NOT how Qur’anic explanation should be, although the aforementioned interpretations were all ‘reasonable,’ and did not depart from language and context.  The Traditional interpretation is not like that at all.

Let us look at the Traditional explanation, which both Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad seem to accept:

"And take in thy hand a little grass, and strike therewith: and break not (thy oath)." Truly We found him full of patience and constancy. How excellent in Our service! ever did he turn (to Us)!

In his worst distress Job was patient and constant in faith, but apparently his wife was not. According to the Book of Job (ii. 9-10), "Then said his wife unto him, Dost thou still retain thine integrity? Curse God, and die. But he said unto her, Thou speakest as one of the foolish women speaketh. What? Shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil? In all this did not Job sin with his lips." He must have said in his haste to the woman that he would beat her: he is asked now to correct her with only a wisp of grass, to show that he was gentle and humble as well as patient and constant.” End Quote.

[And finally We told him:] "Now take in thy hand a small bunch of grass, and strike therewith, and thou wilt not break thine oath!" – for, verily, We found him full of patience in adversity: how excellent a servant [of Ours], who, behold, would always turn unto Us!

In the words of the Bible (The Book of Job ii 9), at the time of his seemingly hopeless suffering, Job’s wife reproached her husband for persevering in his faith: “Dost thou still retain thine integrity? Curse God, and die.” According to the classical Qur’ān-commentators, Job swore that, if God would restore him to health, he would punish her blasphemy with a hundred stripes. But when he did recover, he bitterly regretted his hasty oath, for he realized that his wife’s “blasphemy” had been an outcome of her love and pity for him; and thereupon he was told in a revelation that he could fulfil his vow in a symbolic manner by striking her once with “a bunch of grass containing a hundred blades or more.” (Cf. 5:89 – ‘God will not take you to task for oaths which you may have uttered without thought.”)” End Quote

 We have noted that:

·    Firstly, the Traditional interpretation based itself on the Biblical narrative of Job being chided by his wife.
·    Secondly, it departed on a creative tangent with:
Ø The presumption that the wife deserved some kind of ‘punishment'/ that Prophet Job overreacted.
Ø And the presumption that he swore an oath to hit her 100 lashes (God Alone knows where that came from!).
Ø And the presumption that oaths must be fulfilled, no matter how injurious or unreasonable they might be.
Ø And the presumption that God showed him a way to fulfill his unreasonable oath without much hurting his wife, by hitting her ‘only’ once, with 100 reeds.

This, despite the fact that Prophet Job is the PARAGON of Forbearance.

Also, despite the fact that both Qur’anic injunction (HQ2:225; 5:89) and Prophet Muhammad’s Sayings* show us the NECESSITY of renouncing injurious oaths.  We are even shown how to expiate from them, and warned NOT to make such oaths in the first place.

Dear Reader: I have often heard husbands joke: 

If Job himself got so angry, that he swore to hit his wife 100 lashes… how can any husband blame himself after that?” 

‘Little jokes’ they may be, but they say volumes about the prevalent mentality.

Shouldn’t we pay attention to the fact that, although the Old Testament is not known for being especially respectful to women, Job’s so-called ‘oath of wife-beating’ is not found on its pages….but rather, it is found on the pages written by Muslim commentators?  What does that say about many of them, as far as respect for womanhood goes?

But let us not kid ourselves.  It is not just about womanhood.
It is also about certain persons allowing themselves what some have mistakenly dubbed a 'Deception which agrees with Shariah' الحيلة الشرعيةor a 'rukhSsa' رخصة. Many scholars do not accept this, but there are those who do, and they might allow the fulfillment of a seemingly 'religious edict' or requirement in a most 'crooked' way (think of lawyers who create loopholes for themselves or others; remember the highly controversial and utterly ridiculous so-called 'fatwa' regarding the 'breastfeeding of colleagues,' of June 2010). 

Their reasoning is that, if 'God taught Prophet Job' a way to go around fulfilling his solemn oath to Him, and then told us about it in these verses... this proves that scholars could devise ways to do the same in any matter of Faith (!). ... nevermind the fact that neither the oath nor the wife nor the 100 lashes are anywhere to be found except in their imaginations.  

Dear Reader:
Think of the future, of the present… and of the past centuries where so many, too many wives were mistreated by their husbands thanks to such unfounded presumptions, erroneous interpretations, and  'loopholes.' Think of all the times the Qur'an has been accused of allowing, or even encouraging 'wife-beating!' 
It is we Muslims who are to blame for much that is said against the Qur'an and against the Messenger Muhammad, peace upon him.  Us.  Our 'Fatwas,' our Presumptions, our Actions.

This, dear Reader, is one of the best examples of Muslims mistakenly converting - in their own minds- the dynamic Qur’an  into a Static Compilation!
(Put ‘static compilation quraan’ in ‘Search this Site’.)

And May God’s peace and blessings be upon Prophet Job!
The Qur’an does absolve him of our presumptions, as its verses declare:

“….We have indeed found him (to be) Forbearing; how excellent a Worshipper, he is indeed oft-returning!”

Enough said!

Our next Reading is from HQ38:45-88.

Peace unto all!

[i] (صفن) أصلانِ صحيحانِ، أحدهما جنسٌ من القيامِ، والآخر وِعاءٌ من الأوعية.
فالأوّل: الصُّفون، وهو أن يقومَ الفرسُ على ثلاثِ قوائمَ ويرفعَ الرَّابعة، إلاَّ أنَّه ينالُ بطرَف سُنْبُكِها الأرض. والصَّافن: الذي يصفُّ قدمَيه.
ومنه تَصَافَنَ القومُ [الماء([4])]، وذلك إِذا اقتسموه بالصُّفْن، والصُّفْن: جلدةٌ يُسْتَقَى بها.
ويقال إنَّ ذلك إِنَّما يكون على المَقْلَة، يُسقى أحدُهم قَدْر ما يغمُرها.

[ii] (جود) أصلٌ واحد، وهو التسمُّح بالشيء، وكثْرةُ العَطاء. يقال رجلٌ جَوَادٌ بَيِّن الجُودِ، وقومٌ أجْواد. والجَوْد: المطر الغزير. والجَواد: الفرسُ الذّريع والسّريع، والجمع جِيادٌ. قال الله تعالى إذْ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ بِالعَشِيِّ الصَّافِنَاتُ الجِيَادُ} [ص 31]. والمصدر الجُودَة. فأمّا قولهم: فلانٌ يُجاد إلى كذا، [فـ] كَأنه يُساقُ إليه.

[iii] فتن: يدلُّ على ابتلاء واختبار. من ذلك الفِتْنة. يقال: فتَنْتُ أفتِنُ فَتْناً. وفَتَنْتُ الذّهبَ بالنّار، إذا امتحنتَه. وهو مفتونٌ وفَتِين. والفَتَّان: الشَّيطان. ويقال: فتنه وأفْتَنَه. قال الخليل: الفَتْن: الإحراق. وشيءٌ فتين: أي مُحْرَق. ويقال للحَرَّة: فَتين، كأنَّ حجارتَها مُحرَقة

[iv] (جسد) يدلُّ على تجمُّع الشيء أيضاً واشتدادِه.
من ذلك جَسَدُ الإنسان. والمِجْسَد: الذي يلي الجَسَد من الثِّياب. والجَسَدُ والجَسِد من الدم: ما يَبِسَ، فهو جَسَدٌ وجاسد.
وقال قوم: الجسَد الدّمُ نفسُه، والجَسِد اليابس.‏

[v] (كرس)  أصلٌ صحيح يدلُّ على تلبُّدِ شيءٍ فوقَ شيء وتجمُّعه. فالكِرْس: ما تلبَّدَ من الأبعار والأبوال في الدِّيار. واشتقت الكُرَّاسَة من هذا، لأنَّها ورقٌ بعضُه فوقَ بعض.

[vi] (غوص) أصلٌ صحيحٌ يدلُّ على هجومٍ على أمرٍ متسفِّلٍ من ذلك الغَوْص: الدُّخول تحتَ الماء. على الشيء غائص. وغاصَ على العلمِ الغامِضِ حتى استنبطه.

[vii]   (ركض)  أصلٌ واحدٌ يدلُّ على حركةٍ إلى قُدُمٍ أو تحريكٍ. يقال ركَض الرّجُل دابّتَه، وذلك ضَرْبُه إِيَّاها برجلَيْه لتتقدَّم. وكثُر حتَّى قيل ركَضَ الفرَسُ، وليس بالأصل. وارتكاض الصبيّ: اضطرابُه في بَطْن أمِّه. قال الخليل: وجُعِل الرَّكْض للطَّير في طيَرانها. ويقال أرْكَضَتِ الناقة، إذا تحرَّكَ ولدُها في بطن أمِّها.

[viii] (برد) أصول أربعة: أحدها خلاف الحَرّ، والآخَر السُّكون والثبوت، والثالث الملبوس، والرابع الاضطراب والحركة. وإليها تَرجِع الفُروع.
فأمّا الأوّل فالبَرْد خلافُ الحَرِّ. يقال بَرَدَ فهو بارِد، وبَرَد الماءُ حرارةَ جَوْفِي يَبْرُدُها.:
وبَرَدْتُ عينَه بالبَرُودِ([74]). والبرَدَةُ: التُّخَمةُ. وسَحاب بَرِدٌ، إذا كانَ ذا بَرَد. والأبردان: طرَفَا النّهار.
وأما الأصل الآخر فالبرد النَّوم. قال الله تعالى: {لاَ يَذُوقُونَ فِيهَا بَرْداً ولا  شَرَاباً} [النبأ 24].
ويقال بَرَد الشيءُ إذا دامَ.
بارد بمعنى دائم. وبرَدَ لي على فلانٍ من المال كذا، أي ثَبَتَ. وبَرَدَ في يدي كذا، أي حَصَل. ويقولون بَرَدَ الرّجُلُ إذا ماتَ. فيحتمل أن يكون من هذا، وأن يكون مِن الذي قَبْلَه.
وأما الثالث فالبُرْد، معروفٌ.
وبُرْدَا الجرادة: جناحاها.
والأصل الرابع بَريد العَسَاكر؛ لأنه يَجيء ويذْهَب.
ومحتمل أن يكون المِبْرَدُ من هذا، لأن اليَدَ تَضْطَرِبُ به إذا أُعمِلَ.

[ix] (ضغث) يدلُّ على التباسِ الشَّيءِ بعضه ببعض. يقال للحالم: أَضْغَثْتَ الرُّؤيا. والأضغاث: الأحلام الملتبِسة. والضِّغْث: قُبضة من قُضْبان أو حشيش، قال الخليل: أصلٌ واحدٌ. ويقال ناقة ضَغوثٌ، إِذا شَكَكْتَ في سِمَنِها فلمستَ أَبِها طِرْقٌ.

[x] (حنث) وهو الإثْم والحَرَج. يقال حَنِثَ فلانٌ في كذا، أي أثِمَ. ومن ذلك قولهم: بلغ الغلام الحِنْثَ، أي بلغ مبلغاً جَرى عليه القلمُ بالطّاعة والمعصية، وأُثبتت عليه ذنوبُه. ومن ذلك الحِنْث في اليمين، وهو الخُلْف فيه. فهذا وجه الإثم. وأمّا قولهم فلان يتحنّث من كذا، فمعناه يتأثّم. والفرق بين أَثِمَ وتَأَثّم، أن التأثُّم التنحِّي عن الإثم، كما يقال حَرج وتحرّج؛ فحَرِجَ وقع في الحَرَج، وتَحَرَّج تنحّى عن الحَرج. وهذا في كلماتٍ معلومةٍ قياسُها واحد.‏
ومن ذلك التحنّث وهو التعبُّد. ومنه الحديث: "أنَّ رسولَ الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم كان يأتِي غار حراء فيتحنَّث فيه الليالي ذوَاتِ العدد".‏
* Saying of Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him, as narrated by Bukhari:
‘By God, God- willing, I will never swear an oath and then see something better than it, but that I will do that which is better and expiate my oath.’

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