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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


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A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Wednesday, January 19, 2011

Day 310; Qur’an 103; 104; 105

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
PAGE 601 Arabic Qur’an

سورة العصر
'Time Past/ Pressing Time’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:
This early Makkan Surah refers to the testimony of Time through the ages. All history shows that Evil came to an evil end. But Time is always in favour of those who have Faith, live clean and pure lives, and know how to wait, in patience and constancy.

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

REVEALED shortly after surah 94.


>>1. The first Verse calls out a vow, 'W-al 'Asr!' so as to draw our attention to something of great importanceعصر-'aSr (put 'vow' in Search').

Yusuf Ali explains 'Asr' similar to what scholars have traditionally indicated, that it could be referring to the specific afternoon prayer by that name OR to Time in general (dahr/ الدهر).
Laleh Bakhtiar explains it as 'By time through the ages.'
Muhammad Asad, on the other hand, sees it as a measurable period, distinct from 'Dahr.'

Looking at the occurrences of the root-verb عَصَرَ in the Qur'an, and studying its definition from our 1030 year old Lexicon (see footnote i), we get a better idea of what this magnificent root-verb indicates, with its three major connotations:
  • Time; especially 'later' or 'advanced' time (the term 'Asr' indicating a time 'past Thuhr.' 'Mu'Sir' refers to someone past childhood).
  • Pressure, which brings out 'yield' in general (juice from fruits, oil from olives, even the 'yields' from a job, as in its 'income.' We also notice 'bounty' in this definition, since bounty is (literally) the yields of one's generosity. Some linguists have said that the Qur'anic word 'mu'Siraat-معصرات', which refers to rain-laden clouds, is related to the 'bounty' they bear (ii). Lately however, as scientific knowledge has advanced, researchers are saying that it is the change in atmospheric 'pressure' which this Arabic word refers to (also note the word 'i'Saar-إعصار' for hurricanes, or tropical cyclones). This, in itself is a 'Scientific Marvel.'
  • Attachment /Refuge: This is the third connotation of its root-verb. 'ASara' is something one is attached to and seeks shelter in (the lexicon gave the examples of 'ma'aaSir' meaning turban and also body-shield).

Looking at the definition of the root-verb, it is evident that the term 'ASr' is about Time passing and the fact that it is pressing upon us. It could be a specific point in time, or Time in general.

>>2. As for the important subject-matter of this vow: It lies in the remaining 2 verses, which make this entire short Chapter ONE SINGLE ALL-IMPORTANT VOW:

'By Time passing/ pressing/ W-al 'Asr!'
Verily, the Cognizant Human is indeed in Loss.
Except Those Who Have Attained Faith and performed Good deeds,
and have instructed one another * in (upholding) Justice
and have instructed one another * in (upholding) Patient Perseverance!'

If only we'd heeded these verses!

Please take note:
Regular Readers will remember that the verb 'waSSaa' is about instruction which is carried forward, generation after generation; THAT is what we were supposed to do:
It is INSUFFICIENT that we follow certain 'virtues' on our own!
We should make sure that our children acknowledge these virtues, see these virtues in us, and receive our 'wassiyyah/ relayed instruction' that they fulfill these virtues in themselves and in their own children.
We have an example in what both Prophets Abraham and Jacob had 'wassaa/ instructed' their children in HQ 2: 132; they instructed their children to make sure that they arrive at the end of life's journey in Pure Reverence to God, who had chosen the Standard of Accountability for them. Also remember HQ 19: 17, where we were told about 'Those of the Right/ أصحاب الميمنة'... where we learnt an important characteristic of these fine people which was that they also instructed one another in 'mutual Compassion/ marHama/مرحمة' ..! All that is VERY important here, because 'loss' is NOT just about losing oneself:
The sorriest losers are those who have also lost their families and their children by their own actions/ inaction!

See HQ 42: 45, and 39:15 which says:

So worship whatever you wish, beneath Him! 
Say, truly The Losers are those who have lost their own selves
and their families at the time of Resurrection; that is indeed the Manifest Loss!”

Peace unto all!

سورة الهمزة
'The Slanderer’
From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

"This Makkan Surah condemns all sorts of scandal, backbiting, and selfish hoarding of wealth, as destroying the hearts and affections of men."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"TAKING its conventional name from a noun occurring in the first verse, this surah seems to have been revealed towards the end of the third year of Muhammad's prophethood - probably after surah 75 (Resurrection)."


>>1. The Chapter begins by calling 'Wail!/ ويل' upon every 'Criticizing /لمزة 'Discord-Sower/ همزة
  • See 38 instances of 'wail/ wailing' in Qur'an, and note that the vast majority is due to lying/ falsifying the truth.
  • Words with the root-verb 'hamaza- همز' appear 3 times in the Qur'an (iii), and we realize that it is about someone who intentionally sows discord by pressuring people into reacting negatively (we came across this in an earlier verse, which was about seeking refuge in God from the 'ringleaders/ chieftains/ شياطين' (of mischief in one's social circle).
  • Words with the root-verb 'lamaza' appear 4 times (لمز iv), and are about the character-type who has nothing but criticism for others.
    (I just realized something quite interesting from HQ 49:11, which says: "...and do not criticize yourselves....!!..." … Is it about our self-critical inner voice which keeps putting us down? I should readdress that verse!).

See the explanation of this verse:

>>2. Verses 2-3 mention another feature of this character-type, related to his materialism: He amasses a fortune, then hoards it, thinking that it will guarantee him longevity (I now wonder if people who spend fortunes on immortalizing their names are among them. Such commemoration is earned when there much good behind it, and NOT because one had paid for it.)

>>3. Verse 4 announces that this person shall be thrown into the 'Crusher/ HuTamah حطمة/' ' a word mentioned twice in this Chapter only.
Then, Verse 5 asks/ states 'Maa adraaka': What (would allow you) to (pursue to) determine what the 'Crusher' is?/ You cannot pursue to determine what the Crusher is!

Verse 6 responds, saying that it is God's 'Blazing Fire,' which 'looks upon/ overwhelms' (v) their Fou'aad.

New Readers: Fou'aad is related to our mental/emotional response. We spoke about this earlier; put word in 'Search.'
Remember, we shall be questioned with regard to our hearing, our eyesight and our "fou'aad" (HQ 17:36); our mental/ emotional response to whatever befalls us.

As for Faith: If, from the very beginning, we refuse Faith... then our vision and our fou'aad become unsteady, and prone to wavering (HQ 6:110).
No wonder then that the 'Blazing Fire' shall 'look upon/ overwhelm' the Fou'aad of those who refused to believe in God (see 18 instances of root-verb طلع in Qur'an).
Furthermore, it shall be closed in upon them, with extending bars.

May our Faith and good deeds keep us away from all that!

Peace unto all!

سورة الفيل
'The 'Elephant/ The Deception'

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:

"This early Makkan Surah refers to an event that happened in the year of birth of our Holy Prophet, say about 570 A.C. Yemen was then under the rule of Abyssinians (Christians) who had driven out the Jewish Himyarite rulers.
Abrahah Ashram was the Abyssinians governor or viceroy. Intoxicated with power and fired by religious fanaticism, he led a big expedition against Makkah, intending to destroy the Ka'bah. He had an elephant or elephants in his train.
But his sacrilegious intentions were defeated by a miracle. No defense was offered by the custodians of the Ka'bah as the Army was too strong for them. But a shower of stones, thrown by flocks of birds, destroyed the invading army almost to a man. The stones produced sores and pustules on the skin, which spread like a pestilence."

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

"TAKING its name from the mention of the "Army of the Elephant"' in the first verse, this surah alludes to the Abyssinian campaign against Mecca in the year 570 of the Christian era. Abrahah, the Christian viceroy of the Yemen (which at that time was ruled by the Abyssinians), erected a great cathedral at Sana, hoping thus to divert the annual Arabian pilgrimage from the Meccan sanctuary, the Kabah, to the new church. When this hope remained unfulfilled, he determined to destroy the Kabah; and so he set out against Mecca at the head of a large army, which included a number of war elephants as well, and thus represented something hitherto unknown and utterly astounding to the Arabs: hence the designation of that year, by contemporaries as well as historians of later generations, as "the Year of the Elephant". Abrahah's army was totally destroyed on its march (see Ibn Hisham; also Ibn Sa'd I/1, 55 f.) - probably by an extremely virulent outbreak of smallpox or typhus - and Abrahah himself died on his return to Sana." 


Dear Reader:

I can't take anything for granted any more: Qur'anic explanation must be supported by evidence, so listen to this:
If we disassociated ourselves from preconception (which is what we read in both introductions above) we'd realize that this Chapter MAY not have been about an 'Elephant' at all. You see, the word 'Feel' at the time of Revelation had other meanings, and I am still looking into different sources to find out whether or not 'elephant' was among them: At the time of Revelation, 'Feel' was about being 'weak-minded,' 'deceptive,' and also 'fat' (see footnote vi). A reference to 'elephant' seems to have come about much later, so I'll keep my mind open for now.

The question 'alam tara keyfa' (Did you not see how ...?) is mentioned twice in the Qur'an: In HQ 89:6 the question refers directly to the 'Aad (tribe), and indirectly (through the conjunction 'and'-و-at the beginning of Verse 9) to the Thamood (tribe), and also in Verse 10, indirectly to Pharaoh.
Some modern-day thinkers have said that this Chapter must be about the tribe of Lot, seeing that the stone-showers of 'sijjeel' (حجارة من سجيل) was what ended their existence (HQ 11:82; 15:74).
I hope to find out WHO it was about. For now, let's put that matter aside. Suffice it to say that everyone at the time of Revelation knew who this Chapter was about.
So, WHAT happened to them?
Read what Yusuf Ali and Muhammad Asad said about this. ّI think that these people were definitely overcome by something from nature, and not by warfare: Note the 11 times where 'We sent UPON them' is mentioned in Qur'anأرسلنا عليهم.
Some say the 'Teyr abaabeel' were actual birds throwing actual stones. Others say it may have been the 'HaSba' (vii) and 'judari' (Scarlet Fever/ Smallpox), both air-borne diseases (hence, in their opinion, the word 'Teyr;' see footnote viii). Read Asad's commentary. Others say that this theory is impossible, simply because the disease would not have been contained, and would have spread to neighboring communities.
Furthermore, the word 'sijjeel' is NOT about 'baked-clay' as most interpreters seem to have understood (ix). As we can see in footnote,x 'sijjeel' is about something (liquid) swelling and being poured, about the 'give and take' (of argument), about something recorded.. about something severe. Together with the word 'Hijaarah'/ stones,' the plural noun 'abaabeel-أبابيل' (xi), and the description of what these people were 'rendered and looked like' ('Asf-ma'kool'), it DOES seem to be about hailstones.

(See definition of root-verb 'Asafaعصف (xii)' and its occurrences in Tanzil Search (6 verses). Note that it is about what happens in storms and by husking... it is about 'threshing/ thrashing' or being 'threshed/ thrashed'

NOW, dear Reader, having read all these notes and definitions, let's see what the entire scene looks like:

God sent upon them what might have been 'speeding masses of laden clouds' (Teyr abaabeel) which were literally 'throwing at them an outpour of severe stones of swollen liquid (Hijaarah min sijjeel), rendering them into what looks like threshed husks/ stripped shells (of their former selves).

Doesn't this seem to describe a violent hailstorm? Meteorologists tell us of more than 100 people killed in Bangladesh in 1986 by 'grapefruit-sized hailstones,' many weighing more than 2 pounds. See this account of the world's deadliest known hailstorms; it is SO interesting!

All I can say with certainty is الله أعلم …. God knows best WHO and WHAT this was all about. But Listeners at the time of Revelation did know, and that's what counted then.

What counts NOW is that we understand that, whether or not this was about an Elephant-led attack on the Ka'ba is not the issue (pending further evidence on 'feel'). The issue here is that we should reread Qur'anic explanation and rid ourselves of preconception. I believe that the story of an attacking formation of 'stone-laden birds' is one of them.

Obviously however, what happened was an incident the Listeners of the time were being reminded of, and it made for a great lesson.

It also made for a good warning.

Peace unto all!

Regular Readers know that in such instances, the letter ‘waw-و’ (called the waw of qassam/ oath) VOWS by what comes right after it, with the purpose of highlighting its great importance. That important subject-matter is called in Arabic ‘the response to the vow/ jawaab el qassam.'  

عصر: أصولٌ ثلاثة صحيحة:
فالأوَّل دهرٌ وحين، والثاني ضَغْط شيء حتَّى يتحلَّب، والثالث تَعَلُّقٌ بشيءٍ وامتساكٌ به.
فالأوَّل العَصْر، وهو الدَّهر. قال الله: {وَالعَصْرِ. إنَّ الإنْسَانَ لَفِي خُسْرٍ} [العصر 1- 2]. وربَّما قالوا عُصُر. قال امرؤ القيس:
ألا أنْعِمْ صباحاً أيُّها الطَّلَلُ البالي *** وهل يَنْعِمَنْ مَن كان في العُصُر الخالي
قال الخليل: والعَصْران: اللَّيل والنهار. قال:
ولَنْ يلبث العَصْرانِ يومٌ وليلة *** إذا اختلفا أن يُدرِكا ما تَيَمَّما
قالوا: وبه سمِّيت صَلاةُ العصر، لأنَّها تُعْصَر، أي تؤخَّر عن الظُّهر. والغداة والعشيُّ يسمَّيان العصرين.
ابن الأعرابيّ: أعْصَر القومُ وأقْصَرُوا، من العَصْر والقَصْر. ويقال: عَصّروا واحتبسوا إلى العصر. وروي حديث أنّ رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم قال لرجلٍ: "حافِظْ على العَصْرَين". قال الرَّجل: وما كانت من لغتنا، فقلت: وما العصران؟ قال: "صلاةٌ قبلَ طُلوع الشَّمس، وصلاةٌ قبل غروبها"، يريد صلاة الصُّبح وصلاة العصر.
فأمّا الجارية المُعصِر فقد قاسه ناسٌ هذا القياس، وليس الذي قالوه فيه ببعيد.
قال الخليل وغيره: الجارية إذا رأت في نفسها زيادةَ الشَّباب فقد أعْصَرَتْ، وهي مُعْصِرٌ بلغت عَصْرَ شبابِها وإدراكها. قال أبو ليلى: إذا بلغت الجاريةُ وقَرُبت من حَيْضها فهي مُعْصِر. وأنشد:
جاريةٌ بسَفَوان دارُها *** قد أعصَرَتْ أو قَدْ دنا إعصارُها
قال قومٌ: سمِّيت معصراً لأنَّها تغيَّرَت عن عَصْرها. وقال آخرونَ فيه غير هذا، وقد ذكرناه في موضعه.
والأصل الثَّاني العُصارة: ما تحَلَّبَ من شيءٍ تَعصِره. قال:
* عصارة الخُبز الذي تَحَلَّبا
وهو العصير. وقال في العُصَارة:
العودُ يُعصَر ماؤُه *** ولكلِّ عِيدانٍ عُصَارهْ
وقال ابن السِّكِّيت: تقول العربُ: "لا أفعله مادامَ الزيتُ يُعْصَر".
قال أوس: فلا بُرْء من ضَبَّاءَ والزيتُ يُعْصَر *
والعرب تجعل العُصارة والمُعْتَصَر مثلاً للخير والعطاء، إنه لكريم العُصارة وكريم المعتصر. وعَصَرت العنب، إذا وَلِيتَه بنَفْسك. واعتصرته، إذا عُصِر لك خَاصّةً. والمِعْصار: شيء كالمِخْلاة يُجعل فيه العِنَبُ ويُعصَر.
ومن الباب: المُعْصِرات: سحائبُ تجيءُ بمطَر. قال الله سبحانه:{وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ المُعْصِراتِ مَاءً ثَجّاجاً} [النبأ 14]. وأُعْصِرَ القومُ، إذا أتاهم المطر. وقرئت: {فِيهِ يُغَاثُ النَّاسُ وَفيهِ يُعْصَرُون} [يوسف 49]، أي يأتيهم المطر. وذلك مشتقٌّ من عَصْر العنب وغيره. فأمَّا الرِّياح وتسميتُهم إيَّاها المُعْصِرات فليس يبعُد أنْ يُحمَل على هذا الباب من جهة المجاورَة، لأنَّها لمّا أثارت السَّحابَ المعصرات سمِّيت معصِرات وإعصاراً.
والإعصار: الغبار الذي يسطع مستديراً*؛ والجمع الأعاصير.
ويقال في غُبار العَجاجة أيضاً: إعصار. قال الله تعالى: {فأَصَابَها إعصارٌ فِيهِ نَارٌ فَاحْتَرَقَتْ} [البقرة 266]. ويقال: مرَّ فلانٌ ولثيابهِ عَصَرَةٌ، أي فَوْحُ طِيبٍ وهَيْجُه. وهو مأخوذ من الإعصار. وفي الحديث: "مرَّت امرأة متطيِّبة لذَيْلها عَصَرَة".
ومن الباب العَصْر والاعتصار. قال الخليل: الاعتصار: أن يَخْرُج من إنسانٍ مالٌ بغُرْمٍ أو بوجه من الوُجوه.
قال ابنُ الأعرابيّ: يقال: بنو فلانٍ يعتصرون العطاء. قال الأصمعي: المعْتَصِر: الذي يأخذ من الشَّيء يُصيب منه.
ويقال للغَلّة عُصارة. وفسِّر قولُه تعالى: {وفيه يَعْصِرُون} [يوسف 49]، قال: يستغلُّون بأرَضيهِم. وهذا من القياس، لأنَّه شيءٌ كأنّه اعْتُصر كما يُعتَصر العِنَبُ وغيرُه. قال الخليل: العَصْر: العطاء. قال طرَفة:
لو كان في أملاكنا أحدٌ *** يَعصِرُ فينا كالذي تَعْصِرُ
أي تُعطِي.
والأصل الثالث: العَصَر: الملجأ، يقال اعتَصَر بالمكان، إذا التجأ إليه.
ويقال: ليس لك من هذا الأمر عُصْرة، على فُعلة ، وعَصَر على تقدير [فَعَلٍ، أي ملجأ.
إنّ المعاصر: العمائم. وقالوا: هي ثيابٌ سُود. والصحيح من ذلك أنَّ المعاصر الدّروع، مأخوذ من العَصْر، لأنّه يُعْصَرُ بها. والله أعلم.
We already know that the verses which mention 'mu'Siraat' are about the tropics, as indicated by the 'gushing and spurting' of the rain pattern they describe-ماءً ثجّاجا- and also the vegetation، which is of 'lush gardens of twisting vine' جنّات ألفافا.
Many people know that 90 percent of the worlds vines are in tropical forests, but do people know that 92 percent of vines twist in a counter-clockwise direction? This is interesting!
Read this piece which concludes with a scientific theory about there being "…...a left-handed bias of all biological molecules in nature."
We know that all planets rotate counter-clockwise (even Venus when viewed from above the South, rather than the North Pole).
Does all that info help us understand why we circumambulate counter-clockwise around the Ka'ba?
When the 'Physical' is well-aligned with nature, the 'Mental/ Spiritual' is too, and can soar more readily to its Creator.

همز: كلمةٌ تدلُّ على ضَغْطٍ وعَصْر. وهمَزْت الشَّيءَ في كفِّي. ومنه الهَمز في الكلام، كأنَّه يَضْغَط الحرف. ويقولون: همزَ بِهِ الأرض. وقوسٌ هَمْزَى: شديدةُ الدَّفعِ للسَّهم. والهمَّاز: العَيَّاب، وكذا الهُمَزَة. وَهمْزُ الشَّيطان كالمُوتَة
تَغلِبُ على قَلْب الإنسان تَذهب به
Also in HQ 9: 58, 79; 49:11.
(لمز)  اللام والميم والزاء كلمةٌ واحدة، وهي اللَّمْز، وهو العَيب. يقال لَمَزَ يَلمِزُ لَمْزاً. قال الله تعالى: {وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ
يَلْمِزُكَ في الصَّدَقاتِ} [التوبة 58]. ورجل لَمَّازٌ ولُمَزَة، أي عَيَّاب
 (طلع: يدلُّ على ظهورٍ وبُروز، يقال طلعت الشمس طُلوعاً ومَطْلَعاً. والمَطْلِع: موضع طلوعها. قال الله تعالى: {حَتَّى مَطْلَِعِ الفَجْر} [القدر 5]. فمن فتح اللام أراد المصدر، ومن كسر أراد الموضع الذي تطلعُ منه. ويقال طَلَعَ علينا فلانٌ، إذا هجم. وأَطْلَعْتُك على الأمر إِطْلاعاً. وقد أطلعتُك طِلْعَهُ. والطِّلاع: ما طَلعت عليه الشمس من الأرض. وفي الحديث: "لو أنَّ لي طِلاَعَ الأرض ذهباً". ونَفْسٌ طُلَعَةٌ: تتطلَّعُ للشيء. وامرأةٌ طُلَعَةٌ، إذا كانت تكثر الاطّلاع. والطَّلْع: طَلْعُ النّخلة، وهو الذي يكونُ في جوفه الكافُور، وقد أطلعت النخلة.
ومن الباباستطلعتُ رأيَ فلانٍ، إذا نظرتَ ما الذي يَبْرُزُ إليك منه. وطَلْعة الإنسان: رؤيته؛ لأنَّها تطلُع، ورمى فلان فأَطْلَعَ وأشْخَص، إذا مرَّ سهمُه برأسِ الغَرَض. وطليعة الجيش: من يطَّلِع طِلْعَ العدوّ، والمُطَّلَع: المأْتَى؛ يقال أين مُطَّلع هذا الأمر، أي مأْتاه. فأمَّا قوله عليه السَّلام: "لافتدَيْتُ به من هول المُطَّلع". .

Linguistic evidence from our oldest, 1030 year old Lexicon -Mu'jam al Maqayees- tells us:

- The root-verb 'fayala' indicates being 'limp, weak,' and that 'perhaps the fat in the hip area' is related to that.
- A 'Feel' is a 'weakbrained' person.
- There's a game called 'mufaayala' which involves hiding an object in a hole in the ground, dividing it into two parts, and asking others to guess where it is.
Note that this Lexicon, which is the OLDEST, tells us NOTHING about 'Feelفيل' indicating an animal/ 'elephant.' Now pay attention to this:

Another Lexicon, Lissaan al Arab, which was compiled THREE HUNDRED years later, tells us right from the start, in the first line of its definition:
-Feel' means 'Elephant.'
Then it goes on to tell us of the other connotations mentioned above, including the game which Arab boys used to play by hiding an object in a hole in the ground, dividing it into two, and asking others to guess where it is. When the person guesses it wrong they say: 'You are a weak-brain; a 'Feel'... a dimwit.

So, are 'aSHaab al Feel/أصحاب الفيل' the People of the Elephant... or 'the People of Deception?'
God Alone knows. But now my question is: Other than the 'Seerah' account of the Prophet's life by Ibn Hisham, is there ANY other reference which tells us of an animal.. the Elephant?

معجم المقاييس:
فيل: أصلٌ يدلُّ على استرخاءٍ وضَعْفٍ. يقال: رجلٌ فِيلُ الرَّأْي. قال الكُمَيت:
بني ربِّ الجوادِ فلا تَفِيلوا *** فما أنتمْ فنَعذِرَكم لِفِيلِ
ويمكن أن يكون القائل من هذا، وهو اللَّحم الذي على خُرْبة الوَرِك. ويسمَّى للينِه.
وقال أبو عبيد: كان بعضُهم يجعل الفائِلَ عِرقاً.
ومما شذَّ عن هذا الباب المُفَايَلة: لُعْبة. ويخبِّئون الشَّيء في التُّراب ويَقْسِمونه قسمين، ويسألون في أيِّهما هو. قال طَرَفة:
يشُقُّ حَبَابَ الماءِ حَيزومُها بها *** كما قَسَم التُّرْبَ المُفَايِلُ باليدِ
لسان العرب: 
الفِيل: معروف، والجمع أَفْيال وفُيُول وفِيَلة؛ قال ابن السكيت: ولا تقل أَفْيِلة، والأُنثى، فِيلة، وصاحبها فَيَّال قوله «وصاحبها فيال» مثله في القاموس، وكتب عليه هكذا في النسخ والأصوب وصاحبه فيال . قال سيبويه: يجوز أَن يكون أَصل فيل فُعْلاً فكسر من أَجل الياء كما قالوا أَبيض وبِيض؛ قال الأَخفش: هذا لا يكون في الواحد إِنما يكون في الجمع؛ وقال ابن سيده: قال سيبويه يجوز أَن يكون فِيل فِعْلاً وفُعْلا فيكون أَفْيال، إِذا كان فُعْلاً، بمنزلة الأَجناد والأَجْحار، ويكون الفُيُول بمنزلة الخِرَجَةَ قوله «ويكون الفيول بمنزلة الخرجة» هكذا في الأصل ولعله محرف، والأصل: ويكون الفيلة بمنزلة الخرجة وأن في الكلام سقطاً)يعني جمع خُرْج. وليلة مثل لون الفِيل أَي سَوْداء لا يهتدي لها، وأَلوان الفِيَلة كذلك.واسْتَفْيَل الجملُ: صار كالفِيل؛ حكاه ابن جني في باب اسْتَحْوذ وأَخواته؛ وأَنشد لأَبي النجم:
يريد عَينَيْ مُصْعَب مُسْتَفْيِل
والتفيُّل: زيادة الشباب ومُهْكَته؛ قال الشاعر:
حتى إِذا ما حانَ من تَفَيُّله
وقال العجاج:
كلّ جُلالٍ يَمْلأُ المُحَبَّلا
عجَنَّس قَرْم، إِذا تَفَيَّلا
قال: تفيَّل إِذا سمن كأَنه فِيل. ورجل فَيِّل اللحم: كثيرة، وبعضهم يهمزه فيقول فَيْئِل، على فَيْعِل.
وتفيَّل النبات: اكْتَهَل؛ عن ثعلب...فَال رأْيُه يَفِيل فَيْلولة: أَخْطأَ وضَعُف. ويقال: ما كنت أُحب أَن يرى في رأْيك فِيَالة. ورجل فِيلُ الرأْي أَي ضعيف الرأْي؛ وفي حديث علي يصف أَبا بكر، رضي الله عنهما: كنتَ للدِّين يَعْسوباً أوَّلاً حين نفَر الناس عنه وآخراً حين فَيَّلوا، ويروى فَشِلوا، أَيوو حين قال رأْيُهُم فلم يَسْتبينوا الحق. يقال: فال الرجل في رأْيه وفَيَّل إِذا لم يصِب فيه، ورجل فائل الرأْي وفالُه وفَيَّله؛ وفي حديثه الآخر: إِنْ تمموا على فِيَالة هذا الرأْي انقطع نِظام المسلمين؛ المحكم: وفي رأْيه فَيالة وفِيالة وفُيُولة.والمُفايَلة والفِيَال والفَيال لُعْبة للصبيان، وقيل: لعبة لفِتيان الأَعراب بالتراب يَخْبَؤُون الشيء في التراب ثم يقسِمونه بقسمين ثم يقول الخابئ لصاحبه: في أَي القسمين هو؟ فإِذا أَخطأَ قال له: فال رأْيُك

Note that the name 'HaSba' (which Arabs seem to have later given to the disease) comes from the root-verb HaSaba which refers to 'stones,' seen in variations of the word in 5 verses of the Qur'an.

We spoke of the word ‘Ttayaraطير earlier, and noted that in the Lexicon it denotes 'swift/ weightless/ effortless transmission or diffusion... and ANYTHING quick in its dispersal, such as morning light and birds.  Although Arabs presently use this word only as a noun which means ‘Birds,’ its historic usage also denoted the Brain, as well as demeanor which is ‘flighty’ as opposed to ‘serene.’ Everything SWIFT is ‘Tta’irطائر- and a swift horse is ‘muttaar.’ To read that entire post -WITH definitions of 'Ttayara'- please put these words in Search: Tta’ir طائر

They based their understanding on a saying of Ibn Abbas, which many Arab Commentators referred to in passing, yet did not validate.

سجل: يدلُّ على انصبابِ شيءٍ بعد امتلائِهِ. من ذلك السَّجْل، وهو الدَّلو العظيمة. ويقال سَجَلت الماءَ فانسجَلَ، وذلك إذا صَبْبَته. ويقال للضَّرْع الممتلئ سَجْل. والمساجلة: المفاخرة، والأصل في الدِّلاء، إذا تساجَلَ الرجلان، وذلك تنازعُهما، يريد كلُّ واحدٍ منهما غلبةَ صاحبه. ومن ذلك الشّيء المُسْجَل، وهو المبذول لكلِّ أحد، كأنَّه قد صُبَّ صبّاً..فأما السِّجِلّ فمن السَّجْل والمساجلة... وفيه أيضاً كالمساجلة، لأنّه عن منازعةٍ ومُداعاة. ومن ذلك قولهم: الحرب سِجَالٌ، أي مباراةٌ مرَّة كذا ومرةً كذا. وقالوا: السِّجِّيل: الشديد.
نضد: يدلُّ على ضَمّ شيءٍ إلى شيءٍ في اتِّساقٍ وجمعٍ، منتصباً أو عريضاً. ونَضَدْتُ الشيءَ بعضَه إلى بعضٍ متَّسقاً أو مِن فَوق. والنَّضَد: المنضود من الثِّياب.
والنَّضَد: السَّرِيرُ يُنضَد عليه المتاع. وأنْضاد الجِبال: جنادلُ بعضُها فوق بعض. والنَّضَد من السَّحاب كالصَّبير، يكون بعضُه إلى بعض، والجمع أنضاد. وأنضادُ القوم: جماعاتهم وعَدَدُه ونَضَدُ الرَّجُلِ: أعمامُه وأخوالُه الذين يتجمَّعون لنُصرته. والنَّضَد: الشَّرَف. ونَضائد الدِّيباج: جمع نَضِيدة، وهي الوِسادةُ وما حُشِيَ من المَتَاع. قال ابن دريد: وما نُضِد بعضُه على بعضٍ فهو نَضِيد.

Linguists say that the singular could either have been 'ibaalah,' 'ibwal,' or ibyil'... indicating 'masses' (see Arabic). I will ask linguists about this, because it does seem related to 'ibil' which we spoke of earlier in HQ 88:17, and which Zamakhshari had said was another name for clouds.

عصف: يدلُّ على خِفّةٍ وسرعة. فالأوَّل من ذلك العَصْف: ما على الحبِّ من قُشور التّبن. والعَصْف: ما على ساق الزَّرع من الوَرَق الذي يَبس فتفتَّت، كل ذلك من العَصْف. قال الله سبحانه:{فَجَعَلَهُم كَعَصْفٍ مَأْكُولٍ} [الفيل 5]، قال بعضُ المفسِّرين: العصف: كلُّ زرعٍ أُكِل حَبُّه وبقي تبنُه. وكان ابنُ الأعرابي يقول: العَصْف: ورقُ كلِّ نابت.
ويقال: عَصَفْتُ الزَّرْعَ، إذا جَزَزْتَ أطرافَه وأكلتَه، كالبقل. ويقال: مكانٌ مُعْصِف، أي كثير العَصْف. والريح العاصف: الشَّديدة. قال الله تعالى: {جَاءَتْهَا رِيحٌ عَاصِفٌ} [يونس 22]. هذا الذي ذكره الخليل، ومعنى الكلام أنَّها تستخِفُّ الأشياءَ فتذهبُ بها تَعصِف بها.
وقال بعض أهلِ العلم: ريح عاصفةٌ نعتٌ مبنيٌّ* على فَعَلَتْ عَصَفتْ. وريح عاصفٌ: ذات عُصُوف، لا يُراد به فَعَلَت، وخرجَتْ مخرجَ لابنٍ وتامِر.
ومن قياس الباب: النَّاقة العَصُوف: التي تَعصِف براكبها فتمضي كأنّها ريحٌ في السُّرعة. ويقال أعصفَتْ أيضاً. والحَرب تَعْصِف بالقوم: تذهبُ بهم.
ونعامةٌ عَصوفٌ: سريعة. وقد قلنا إنَّ العَصْف: الخِفَّة والسُّرعة.
ومن الباب: عَصَف واعتصف، إذا كسب. وذاك أنّه يخفُّ في اكتداحِه.
وهو ذو عَصْفٍ، أي حيلة.

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