CLICK IMAGE: Tanzil Website

UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Sunday, August 29, 2010

Day 182; Qur’an 25:11-32, Page 361 + 362

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s Translation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of this Chapter.
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

PAGE 361 Arabic Qur’an.

1.  Our Reading today, tells us about those who deny ‘the Hour.’
The ‘Hour’ is the period of human existence which lies beyond death… namely Resurrection and Judgment (the noun ‘saa’ah’ ساعة comes from the root-verb ‘sawa’aسوع- [i]’ which refers to ‘the continuity and passing of something.’ 

Persons who Denied the Hour, and did not believe in their own continuity into the afterlife, were intent on finding fault in the Message and its Messenger (as we saw in previous verses).  In Verses 11- 12- 13- 14, the Qur’an dissuades them, warning them of a blazing inferno!

After Dissuasion, we find Persuasion in Verses 15- 16, where the Aware are promised Gardens of Eternity as their reward and destination. 

Verse 16 is beautiful in that it mentions God as YOUR Lord Sustainer and Cherisher: ‘Rabbikaربك- ’- (singular).  Highlighting this relationship with each of us is always in our favor, and is indicative of His providing for each.  We spoke about that earlier on April 22nd, when we mentioned the difference between calling out to Him by His name ‘Allah,’ or by our relationship to Him ‘Rabbi/ Rabbana:’   

‘It is important to know that, in the entire Qur’an, whenever anyone beseeches God, asking Him for something, the address is ‘my/our Lord!’

We also mentioned on Jan 2nd:

 'Rabb' is translated as "Guardian-Lord' by Ali, and 'Sustainer' by Asad, and appears in old Lexicons and is understood as the following (see Asad's commentary):
The Arabic term RABB means much more than 'Lord'.  It refers to someone who has a just claim to possession and authority over something, as well as the task of rearing, sustaining, fostering and bringing it together from inception to final completion!  That is a presence to rely on indeed. Without a definite article 'the', any male head of a family is called rabb, such as in rabb ad-dār ("master of the house") because he has authority over and is responsible for its maintenance and well-being, and a female would be rabbat ad-dār ("mistress of the house"). With 'THE' however ('al' in Arabic), the designation 'Al Rabb' is exclusive to God as the sole fosterer and Sustainer of all.

But here we notice something more: 
What He has listed as a reward for the Aware, is a Promise made by Him ‘upon’ على Himself as YOUR Lord (singular: referring to Muhammad/ each listener), to be rightfully claimed and demanded of Him!  Glory to God, and peace upon His Messenger!

2.  Verses 17- 18- 19 tell us of the Day when Those who Associated partners with God will be ‘gathered’ together with whatever/ whomever they were worshipping, only to be denounced and left to hang on their own.  The Worshipped will be asked how it came about that the Worshippers had strayed… ‘..Did you misdirect these worshippers of Mine or did they lose their way?...  But they respond that it was only due to the pleasures of life which such persons and their forefathers had enjoyed, that these persons forgot the Reminder الذكر- and became a Community of purposeless/ unproductive/ barren بورا [ii] people.
It is interesting to note that Ali sets this scene in what seems like a ‘court of law’ -remember that he is a lawyer!  We already read something similar in HQ 2:165-167 when ‘the Followed’ denounce their ‘Followers.’

3.  Verse 20 informs Muhammad (and listeners) that all Messengers before him ate food and walked the markets… and then asks us all (plural) whether or not, as some humans are tested against each other, we will show Forbearance?  As we know, any question the Qur'an asks will get its interactive response, so our response better not be 'Silence!' Especially since, even as we are responding, the verse continues by saying (in the singular) : '... YOUR Lord is All-seeing'!
For Readers of Arabic, it is especially interesting to note certain Qur’anic patterns; how each Chapter has distinctive words, sometimes rhyme, ALWAYS rhythm, which come together to form a distinctive unit.  Put the expression "وكان ربك" in quotes in Tanzil and note that it appears twice in the Qur’an ‘wakaana Rabbuka baseera/ qadeera’ and that BOTH instances are in this Chapter!

PAGE 362 Arabic Qur’an.

4.  Verses 21- 22- 23 describe those who ‘ not anticipate meeting Us…’.. and tell us of their unreasonable demands (see May 11th).  Such persons keep asking to see angels (as proof that the Message is from God), but the only angels they shall in fact see, will be those who, at their own Life’s end, bring them sorry tidings.  They shall find themselves captive to their misdeeds as all their earthly toils vanish into dust.

After Dissuasion, Verse 24 offers Persuasion, as it briefly mentions ‘The Companions of the Garden.’

Verses 25- 26 then describe the final day of life on earth, when the skies shall split and the Angels shall descend… a difficult day indeed for all Deniers… when The Sovereignty in Truth belongs only to Al Rahmaan الرحمن.

5.  Mentioning God here as al Rahmaan is indicative of Him being ‘The Creator’ of us all, and not simply ‘God Most Merciful/ God Most Gracious’ - as translated by Ali and Asad respectively.
Read the very important posting of July 28th, in which we said:

‘Again and again, Qur’anic context constantly shows us that ‘Al Rahmaan’ denotes ‘The Creator,’ as we saw in the Chapter of Mary (Chapter 19) and as we shall see later in Chapter 55, titled:  ‘Al Rahmaan.’  Indeed, Chapter 55 is all about Creation.  Not only that, but its introductory verses tie three concepts together:  ‘Al Rahmaan’ Himself (Verse 1), His demarcation of the ‘Qur’aan’ (Verse 2), His CREATION of the ‘Insaan’ (Verse 3).
And we saw how Iblees, who had always been a worshipper of God, disobeyed ‘Al Rahmaan,’ - God Himself -AFTER He had created Adam (put ‘Rahmaan’ in ‘Search this Site’).   
Al Rahmaan is therefore not an attribute, but rather:  It is of the same weight as ‘Allah’ (see HQ17:110), to which all other attributes refer.’

Dear Reader:
Regular Readers would have already noted that the grammatical distinction of the words ‘Rahmaan’ and Qur’aan’ are central to our breakthrough at Iqrathechallenge:
This is because, as Arabic grammar tells us: ANY entity referred to by a name in accordance with ‘fa’laan فعلان-[iii]’ has superlative features that are CURRENT and ACTIVE.
·   This applies to the word ‘Insaanإنسان-’ (Cognizant Human) the root-verb of which is ‘anasaأنس- which denotes to see, hear, find comfort, companionship and homogeneity[iv].  Of all God’s living creatures, only Cognizant Humans[v] have those superlative features that are ALWAYS current and active[vi], and it is only FOR Cognizant Humans that the Quraan /Qur’an becomes interactive, and it is only WHEN Cognizant Humans were created that God became known as the Rahmaan. 
·   This also applies to the word ‘Qur’aanقرآن- ’- the root-verb of which is (qara’a قرأ )- a verb which denotes 6 features/ components, that may be activated by a ‘Qari’ or ‘Reader’ at any point in time… and only when that happens, does the static ‘Compilationكتاب- ’ become the interactive ‘Qur’an’  bearing the FULL potential of benefit to its Cognizant Human Reader.
·   Finally, and most importantly, this also applies to the word ‘Rahmaan’ (its root-verb ‘rahama,’ commonly emphasized as bearing the connotation of Mercy, ALSO bears the connotation of being the Generator, the Protective Source of life ‘rahimرحم-, the womb.)
Therefore, the Rahmaan is the Source, the Generator of Life… and He is Eternal and Active فاعل- with regard to Cognizant Humans, who were brought into being (quickenedنفخ- ) by His Spirit.
As we proceed with our Readings, we will notice the distinctiveness of these three words, until finally, when we arrive at HQ 55:1-4, we’ll find that we understand their inter-relatedness and ‘interaction.’  Read this quick explanation (which I’ll work on further when we arrive at Chapter 55):

“The Rahmaan!  Distinguished[vii] the Qur’an.  Created the Insaan.
(Distinguished him in that He) Made him cognizant of articulation.”

الرَّحْمَـٰنُ ﴿١﴾
 عَلَّمَ الْقُرْآنَ ﴿٢﴾
 خَلَقَ الْإِنسَانَ ﴿٣﴾
 عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ ﴿﴾

To recap, Verse 26 tells us that, on that Final Day, The Sovereignty in Truth of all Dominion belongs only to Al Rahmaan الرحمن which, as we said, is indicative of Him being ‘The Creator’ of us all.

6.  Verses 27- 28- 29 seem like a soliloquy, the lonely lament of the Wrongdoer: He bites his own hands in regret, wishing that he had taken the path of the Messenger.  Here this wrongdoer clearly sees that the intention of the Deviant/Sheytaan was only to misdirect him.

In Verse 30 we hear the Messenger declare to his Lord that his own people ‘have taken the Qur’an as Something Abandoned’…

Dear Reader: 
Notice that the Messenger is not complaining about the Compilation being abandoned.  Why?  Because the static Compilation /kitaab كتاب will always be present on people’s shelves, in museums, hung on walls, or at the very least, considered part of history or culture.  It will not be abandoned. 

On the other hand, that which is in danger of abandonment is the Qur’an:  The Live Interactive Reading of the Compilation, using the 6 components of Iqra.  It is that which is, and always can be, abandoned!

Verse 31 informs Muhammad, peace upon him (and listeners) that every Prophet similarly had wrong-doers who opposed him, but that God is sufficient for him, as Provider of Guidance and Succor.

7.  Verse 32 is short, but OH, SO IMPORTANT!
You can see it in both Ali and Asad’s interpretations, before you study it with my definitions.

I find it especially illuminating because it gives us further information on the Qur’an, as the Deniers ask why it wasn’t revealed all at once:  The response is that it wasn’t revealed all at once so as to make firm, or stabilize his Fou’aad’فؤاد – and it was also delivered by ‘tarteel رتّلناه ترتيلا-’.

·   In our Posting of March 29th, our 1000 year-old Lexicon[viii]  told us that the three-letter root-verb ‘Fa-a-da’ فأد- “indicates fever and high temperature,” and our second reference (Ragheb al Asfahaani) said that ‘Fou-aad’ is the ‘qalb’ in a condition of being aflame/ ignited.”

At that time, we understood the word as ‘mental response or reaction,’ but we couldn’t find a suitable word for it.  Today, as I searched in English dictionaries, I believe I found the word most similar in its original connotation, especially as we remember that humans are responsible for, and shall be questioned with regard to their ‘..Hearing, Sight, and Fou’aad…’ as in HQ 17:36.  What are we responsible for, besides hearing and sight?  Our ‘Temperance /Attitude’!   

Actually, ‘Temperance[ix] which denotes Composure and Attitude seems closest to ‘Fou’aad:

Therefore, Verse 32 tells us that the Qur’an was revealed (in stages) not all at once, so as to maintain the stability of the Messenger’s Temperance /Composure, and was delivered in a manner called ‘tarteel.’

Dear Reader, you will be amazed at what we have uncovered with regard to this word:

¨  Arabs have commonly described the alignment of people or objects as ‘ratlin, ratlan, ratlun’ (the diacritic mark –called ‘tanweenتنوين-’ differentiating between parts of speech).  The command ‘rattil’ in traditional understanding, denotes placing words/ verses/ chapters in sequence, while taking care to correctly emphasize each sound.

In Arabic, a snake with a distinctive pattern AND sound is called a ‘Rattlaرتلاء-’ which seems to correspond, in English, to a ‘Rattler’- or Rattle-snake.  Look at the etymology of the English word ‘rattle.’  This word first appeared in the 14th century, and seems to be of ‘unknown’ origin, although believed to be derived from ‘ratelen.’
(For other English words of Arabic origin, put ‘etymology’ in ‘Search this site.’)  

¨  For us at IQRATHECHALLENGE, the commonly accepted definition of ‘rattil’ requires further research, because it is only the Qur’an which God is‘rattalnahu’ (HQ 25: 32) PLUS the Messenger is only commanded to ‘rattil’ the Qur’an (HQ 73:4)!  Put رتل in Tanzil.

This means that the issue is more than the mere ‘structured delivery’ of the Qur’an, or its ‘well-enunciated reception!’
The reputable lexicon (Lisaan al Arab) clinches it for us, when it tells us (among other things) that the noun Tarteel, from the verb ‘rattilرتل-’ is:

 a combination of Realization-تحقيق, Identification/ Clarification-تبيين, AND Confirmation تمكين[x].

Amazing.  This further illustrates the distinctiveness of Qur’an versus Kitaab! 

Therefore, another reason for the Message to be delivered part by part rather than all at once, is so it could fulfill those properties, offering its First Recipient the Messenger the chance to realize, identify and clarify, and finally confirm what he is receiving.

If we are to consider ourselves present-day Recipients of the Qur’an, we too should do the same.  We certainly have the tools to do so, foremost among which is Tanzil, which puts all occurrences of each search-word in a ‘rattelرتل-’ which makes it so much easier for us to investigate, identify, clarify, realize and confirm Qur’anic context and meaning!  

It is only by employing these methods -as we follow the 6 components of IQRA- that we can bring to life the static Compilation we have held onto so dearly for the past millennia.

Enough said!

Our next Reading is from HQ 25: 33-55.
Peace unto all!

[i] سوع: يدلُّ على استمرار الشّيء ومُضيِّه. من ذلك  السَّاعة سمِّيت بذلك.
يقال جاءنا بعد سَوْعٍ من الليل وسُوَاعٍ، أي بعد هَدْءٍ منه. وذلك أنَّه شيءٌ يمضي ويستمرّ. ومن ذلك قولهم عاملته مُساوعةً، كما يقال مياومَة، وذلك من السَّاعة.
ويقال أَسَعْتُ الإبلَ إساعةً، وذلك إذا أهملتَها حتَّى تمرَّ على وجهها. وساعت فهي تَسُوع. ومنه يقال هو ضائع سائع. وناقة مِسياعٌ، وهي التي تذهب في المرعى.

[ii] If you put all these words together in Tanzil بور -قبور - ثبور -زبور -ورق –بورك  you’ll  notice the 4 times where this word appears in the Qur’an.

بور: أصلان: أحدهما هَلاك الشّيء وما يشبِهُه من تعطُّلِهِ وخُلُوِّه.
والآخَر ابتلاءُ الشّيء وامتحانُه.
فأمّا الأوّل فقال الخليل: البَوَار الهلاك، تقول: بارُوا، وهم بُورٌ، أي ضالُّونَ هَلْكَى. وأبارَهُم فُلان، وقد يقال للواحد والجميع والنِّساء والذّكور بُورٌ. قال الله تعالى: {وكُنْتُمْ قَوْماً بُوراً} [الفتح 12]. قال الكسائيّ: ومنه الحديث: "أنّهُ كان يتعوَّذُ من بَوَار الأَيِّم"، وذلك أن تَكْسُدَ فلا تجِدَ زَوْجاً.
قال يعقوب: البُورُ: الرّجُل الفاسد الذي لا خَيْرَ فيه.
قال* [أبو] زيد: يقال إنّه لفي حُور وبُور، أي ضَيْعة. والبائر الكاسِد، وقد بارَتِ البِياعاتُ أي كَسَدَتْ. ومنه دَارَ البَوَارِ} [إبراهيم 28]، وأرضٌ بَوَارٌ ليس فيها زَرع.
قال أبو زياد: البَور من الأرض الَمَوَتان، التي لا تصلح أن تُستَخْرَج. وهي أرَضُونَ أَبْوار. ومنه كتاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لأُكَيْدِرَ: "إنّ لنا البُورَ والمعامِيَ".
قال اليزيديّ: البور الأرضُ التي تُجَمُّ سنةً لِتُزْرَع من قَابِل، وكذلك البَوَار.
والأصل الثاني التّجربة والاختبار. تقول بُرْتُ فلاناً وبُرْتُ ما عندَه، أي جَرَّبتُهُ. وبُرْتُ الناقةَ فأنا أَبُورها، إذا أدنَيْتَها مِن الفَحْلِ لِتُنْظَرَ أحاملٌ هي أم حائل. وكذلك الفحل مِبْوَرٌ، إذا كان عارفاً بالحالين.

[iii] كما ذكرنا سابقاً عن لفظ "رحمن" أنّه على وزن "فعلان"، وأن فعلان هي "وصفٍ فعليٍّ فيه معنى المبالغة للصفات الطارئة" (من كتاب "إعراب القرآن وبيانه") وأسمّيناها بلغتنا الدارجة: "صيغة تفاعلية"- Interactive.  وأدركنا خاصيّة ذلك الأمر وعرفنا أنّ الرحمن هو ربنا الذي خلق الإنسان- وأن "إنسان" هو الآخر لفظ على وزن فعلان... فإن للإنسان مع ربِّه الخالق علاقة تفاعلية من جهته- وفاعلية من جهة الخالق- لا تنتهي، لا بالموت ولا حتى بقيام الساعة.

[iv] (أنس) هو ظهورُ الشيء، وكلُّ شيءٍ خالَفَ طريقة التوحُّش. يقال آنسْتُ الشيء إذا رأيتَه. قال الله تعالى: {فَإنْ آنَسْتُمْ مِنْهُمْ رُشْداً} [النساء 6]. ويقال: آنَسْتُ الشيءَ إذا سمعتَه. وهذا مستعارٌ من الأوّل. والأَنْس: أنْسُ الإنسانِ بالشيء إذا لم يسْتَوْحِشْ منه.

[v]  (إنسان: من يؤنس له)’Insaan’ is the human  after arriving at the communicative, intelligent stage.  Prior to that, in the initial stages of human creation, the Qur’an refers to the human species as ‘Bashar.’

[vi] Arabs should know that the word ‘hayawaanحيوان- ’ does NOT mean ‘animal’ although we use it as such!  ‘Hayawaan’ is the Everlasting Hereafter, as we see in HQ 29:64 – (put the word in Tanzil.)

[vii] ‘Allamaعلم- ’ literally means to mark out, distinguish something from all others.  It is also commonly understood as ‘to teach,’ which is related to a person becoming able to distinguish one thing from another.

[viii] (فأد) يدلُّ على حُمَّى وشِدّةِ حرارة. من ذلك: فأَدْتُ اللَّحمَ: شويته. وهذا فَئِيدٌ، أي مشويّ. والمِفْأد: السَّفُود. والمُفتأَد: الموضِع يُشوَى فيه.
الراغب الأصفهاني: فأد- الفؤاد كالقلب لكن يقال له فؤاد إذا اعتبر فيه معنى التفؤد، أي: التوقد.

[ix] This word seems most suited as translation for ‘fou’aad’ because it too is tested by fire, its definition denoting ‘the hardness and toughness of metal which results from ‘tempering.’  In humans, it denotes ‘composure,’ ‘self-possession,’ and ‘attitude.’  Let me know what you think, dear Reader.

من معجم لسان العرب: [x] قال أَبو العباس: ما أَعلم الترتيل إِلاَّ التحقيق والتبيين والتمكين.
وقال أبو إسحق ورتل القرآن ترتيلاً بينه تبييناً.”

Let's TWEET this!

Tweet me!