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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


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A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Tuesday, December 7, 2010

Day 267; Qur’an 60: 1-13, pages 549-551

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan!
Yusuf Ali’s explanation of this Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s explanation of this Chapter.

Their commentaries can be read in ‘verse by verse’ view.

سورة المُمْتَحَنَة
‘The Tested’

From Introduction of Yusuf Ali:
“Here the point is: what social relations are possible with the Unbelievers? A distinction is made between those who persecute you for your Faith and want to destroy you and your Faith, and those who have shown no such rancour.  For the later there is hope of mercy and forgiveness. The question of women and cross-marriage is equitably dealt with.”

From Introduction of Muhammad Asad:

“THE KEY-WORD by which this surah has been known from earliest times is based on the injunction "examine them" in verse 10. Revealed some months after the conclusion of the - 1094 -Truce of Hudaybiyyah-that is, not earlier than the year 7 H. and probably as late as the beginning of 8 H. - Al-Mumtahanah is in its entirety devoted to the problem of the believers' relations with unbelievers. Although, as was quite natural, most of the Prophet's Companions visualized these problems under the aspect of the historical events of which they were witnesses, the import of the injunctions laid down in this surah cannot be restricted to that particular historical situation but has, as always in the Qur'an, a definite bearing on how believers of all times should behave.”


Indeed, this important chapter draws for the ‘Believers’ the parameters of how to deal with those who have no faith in God: 
They should be dealt with in a straight-forward, equitable and even-handed manner, even to the possibility of feeling love and devotion for them… PROVIDED -PROVIDED –PROVIDED that they have NEVER fought against Believers to change their standard of Accountability/ Deen, and provided that they have never attempted to displace them from their homes.  These are the 2 conditions which, when lacking, make anyone into enemies who should be treated as such.  Could anyone disagree with the logic and justice of that?

‘Those who had Attained Faith’ are addressed directly in Verses 1, 10, 13.  For us listeners, whenever we hear such a call, we take heed, since such a call is always followed by instruction on what to follow or to avoid.  In these verses, the warning to the Faithful is NOT to take people who have openly announced their enmity as ‘protectors/intimates,’ NOR TO GIVE SUCH PERSONS ANY ROLE IN THE LIVES OF FAITHFUL WOMEN (even if they were their own family members), NOR to continue their own cohabitation with unfaithful women (even if they were their own family members).

This theme of choosing one’s intimates appears in many verses in the Qur’an, (put ‘protector’ in ‘Search’), mainly due to the fact that, after an ideological change- which is almost always linked to economical losses, being a family-member or previous ally does not mean that someone can be trusted.  Indeed, it was from such ranks that the Faithful got their most brutal enemies!

What an important concept: 
Persons who have ‘despaired’ of the Hereafter should not be given any role in forming our present or future!

 PAGE 549 Arabic Qur’an

1.   Verses 1-2 draw the attention of Those Who have attained Faith to the need to re-assess their innermost sense of allegiance:
Whatever ‘love/ devotion/ mawadda’ may have been harbored to others who were ‘close’ prior to the newfound Faith has to be re-evaluated:  Do such persons hold OUR benefit at heart, or only theirs?  Are they likely now to harm us since we have left their ‘faith,’ or not?  New circumstances dictate new resolutions; relationships have changed and alliances should be reassessed, as well as family-ties.  Yes, in such dangerous times even family-ties may need to be broken! Here we find them not fulfilling the condition we spoke about:  When they fight us to get us to change our standard of Accountability/ Deen, we have to separate ways, and treat them as enemies.

Verse 2 informs us as to the innermost desire of such persons; their innermost desire is that you commit ‘kufr/ Denial.’ 
Indeed, everyone should be aware that God knows everything!  The first verse ended by stating that ‘…I am most-Knowing of what you conceal and what you reveal, and any of you who so acts has indeed strayed from the rightful course!’

2.    Verse 3 tells us that NONE shall benefit us; neither the blood-relatives of which we have sprung, nor the blood-relatives which spring out of us!  At the time of Resurrection, God shall define and distinguish amongst us all, and He is Seeing of what we are doing. 
So, what is it that ‘defines and distinguishes’ us?  Our deeds. 
And what is it that benefits us?  Yes:  Our Deeds.

3.    Both Verses 4 and 6 mention the ‘good example/ uswatun hassanah/  أسوة حسنة’ .. of Prophet Abraham, peace upon him, who plainly absolved himself of his people due to their idol-worship, announcing to them that he and his followers have ‘refuted/ denied’ them, and warning them that they shall show clear enmity and everlasting dislike for them until they believed in God Alone.  We hear Abraham’s plea for his father, seeking God’s forgiveness for him, coupled with a beautiful prayer of reliance on God.  We also hear the rest of the prayer in Verse 5, asking God ‘ not make of us (render us into) a Trial by Fire to Those who had Denied, and to forgive us, You are The Invincible, The Wise’ (this is similar to the prayer of Prophet Moses and his followers in HQ 10:85),

Dear Reader: 
Note that ‘People of Faith’ can become a ‘Fitnah/ Trial by Fire’ to others, and that this is something they should avoid.  AVOID. 
We should not seek confrontation, as many who call themselves ‘Faithful’ are so foolishly doing these days.  We should fervently avoid it!  How?  By deeds that deflate antagonism, as well as by prayer, seeking God’s help.  Why?  Because ‘Fitnah’ is by definition a ferocious, uncontrollable inferno that does not discriminate, and grows by the second as it feeds upon the good and the bad, the innocent, and the guilty, the young and the old alike…. all equal in its blaze…. forcing future generations to start again from lower than ground-level, losing any benefit their forefathers may have incurred.
What a sad, unnecessary waste.
If we thought of Humanity as one entity which should be progressing, we’d realize how stupid such a ‘fitnah’ would be.
Have we ‘Muslims’ been inflating or deflating antagonism towards us? 
You tell me! 

Regular Readers may remember that in HQ 33:21 Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him, is also said to be the ‘good example.’

PAGE 550 Arabic Qur’an

4.    Verse 6 reasserts the need for us all to see Prophet Abraham’s M.O. as a good example for any who yearn for God and the Final Day, assuring us that any who turns away from this does to his own loss, for God is free of all needs.

Verses 7-9 may seem surprising to some, as they show us the road to reparation between us and our ‘enemies,’ to the extent that even future feelings of ‘devotion’ are possible.  As I mentioned earlier, we should deal with them in a straight-forward, equitable and even-handed manner PROVIDED -PROVIDED –PROVIDED that they have NEVER fought against us to change our standard of Accountability/ Deen, and provided that they have never attempted to displace us from our homes.  These are the 2 conditions without which people become obvious enemies who can never be trusted.

Regular Readers may remember the conditions of the 10-year Truce/ Treaty of Hudaybiyyah, which stated that anyone (from Qureish) who wished to join Muhammad and enter into an agreement with him could do so, while anyone who wished to join Qureish and enter into an agreement with them could do so.  We said at the time that this truce was in fact an opportunity, a break (put ‘Opening/ Fat-H’ in ‘Search’).
Verses 10- 11 speak of one of the outcomes of this truce: Giving married couples the chance to separate when they do not share the same Accountability standards. 

Compatibility in marriage is of utmost importance:
Believing women are NOT to remain married to Idolatrous men, nor are Believing men to remain married to Idolatrous women.  A union which ties down a Believer to an Idolater is henceforth ‘unlawful.’ 
(Read ‘The Marriage Union: Sanctity and Fulfillment’  to understand the importance of compatibility and tranquility/ ‘sakeena’ in marriage, as well as the importance of the institution of marriage itself to personal growth and to society’s advancement.)

Believing women who emigrate to the Believers, leaving their idolatrous families behind, are to be quizzed for signs of sincerity, after which they are welcomed into the Believing society.  Their previous marriages (rendered unlawful due to incompatibility in Accountability/ Deen) are henceforth dissolved, their ex-husbands are reimbursed for whatever dower/ gifts they had given their wives, and the now eligible women are free to wed Believing men, who must extend dowers to them. 
Dowers are used to ‘consolidate’ or ‘dissolve’ the marriage contract, and provide evidence of intent on the part of men.   

PAGE 551 Arabic Qur’an

5.   Verse 12 is about a Believer’s pledge, in this case it is addressed directly to the Prophet, telling him what the women’s bey’a/ pledge should be when they join the Believers.  
They should pledge to the Prophet that they: 
·     Shall not associate anything with God.
·     Shall not steal.
·     Shall not fornicate.
·     Shall not kill their children.
·     Shall not bring forth any invented Falsehood, devised by any personal means. 
·     Shall not disobey him in anything which is mutually acceptable ‘Ma’roof.’

-The fifth pledge refers to any falsehood whatsoever, probably including paternity of their offspring (see here to understand how one’s tongue, arms and legs are witness to one’s true deeds).

-Note that in the final pledge, the Believers’ obeying the Prophet is conditional on the acceptability of his command, as Leader of the community (obeying him as Messenger is never conditional, because in that capacity he will be invoking Qur’an.  Put ‘difference between Prophet Messenger’ in ‘Search’).

-The verse ending commands the Prophet to ask God to forgive them, and that indeed God is Most Forgiving, Unceasingly Compassionate.

-The prophet did conduct several pledges other than this, where both men and women were present.  The conditions were quite similar.
6.    The final verse in this Chapter takes us back to its main theme, calling on Those who Had Attained Faith for the third time, telling them/ us not to take as ‘intimates/ protectors’ people who have incurred God’s severity, and are in despair of the Hereafter, likening their despair to to that of the Deniers feelings towards people who are dead and buried ‘companions of the graves.’
Since the Deniers do not believe in the Afterlife, once someone is dead, that is the end for him and for them.

And so ends this important chapter which draws the parameters of how to deal with those who have no faith in God, making sure they have no say in our own future!  

Peace unto all!

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