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UNCOVERING the original message of the Arabic Qur'an by using Lexicons compiled more than 1,000 years ago.

ISOLATING Fact from Fiction.

RECOVERING Hope and regaining the perspective where Humanity is one, God's Message is one, and our Future CAN become one we all look forward to!


Image: 14th C. Qur'an, Mamluk origin, Library of Congress; Rights obtained.

A BREAKTHROUGH project which helps understand the Qur'an AS REVEALED -not just 'as explained.'


Wednesday, November 17, 2010

Day 247; Qur’an 45:1-22; page 499-500

Welcome Friends:  Ahlan wa sahlan
Check out the meaning of the word ‘raqaba,’ which I’ve just added (in italics) towards the end of our last post.
As you’ve seen, dear Reader:  Studying the Qur’an is a never-ending process!  
Yusuf Ali’s Translation of our new Chapter.
Muhammad Asad’s Translation of our new Chapter. 
Their commentaries can only be read in verse by verse view.

سورة الجاثية
From Yusuf Ali’s Introduction:

“This is the sixth of the Ha Mim series…  The title Al Jathiyah (The Kneeling Down, or Bowing the knee), taken from verse 28, expresses the leading idea in the Surah. In this life, in spite of the Signs of God, and the evidences of His goodness all around, men go about in Unfaith, and mocking at Faith; but the End will bring them all to their knees.”

From Muhammad Asad’s Introduction:

“THE DESIGNATION of this surah - revealed immediately after the preceding one - is based on a word which appears in verse 28 and refers to the humility with which all human beings will face, on resurrection, their final judgment.”

The title of this chapter comes from the word ‘jaathiyah’ (Verse 28), which describes people’s position at the time of Judgment, when they shall be ‘huddled’ (see all 3 occurrences of this verb in Qur’an).

This Chapter is the sixth of seven which begin with (Hhaa-meem…حم) the disjointed sounds/ letters, seen here in Tanzil.
As we said earlier, when we look at context, we note that all these ‘sounds/ letters’ precede (5 times) the mention of ‘al Kitaab/ the Compilation,’ and (once) of ‘Tanzeel/ a ‘Transmission’ sent by God to Cognizant Humans,’ and (once) of ‘wahi / exclusive information’ conveyed to Prophet Muhammad, peace upon him, in chapters which are all thought to be ‘late Meccan.’

PAGE 499 Arabic Qur’an.

1.  Today we note that these sounds/ letters precede mention of the Compilation being a ‘Tanzeel/ Transmission’ (to Cognizant Humans) sent from God, The Invulnerable/Invincible, The Wise.

Verses 3-6:
The next verse tells us that ‘in the exalted expanses and in the earth are, indeed, Signs for Faithful People.’
Note that they have earned this title.
There are other such instances where the Qur’an tells us that this Sign is/ these Signs are observed by ‘people of knowledge,’ ‘those who distinguish,’ ‘those who persevere and grow,’ ‘people who listen,’ ‘who reflect,’ ‘who know,’ etc...)

Verse 4 invites us to think of how we were created, and of God’s propagation of all living organisms that roam the earth (daabbaدابّة-- literally 'that which moves'), telling us that in this are Signs for ‘people of certitude.’
Verse 5 gives us more to wonder at (similar to HQ 2:164), telling us that such are Signs for ‘people who secure knowledge.’
Verse 6 addresses the Messenger directly, assuring him/us of the Truth in which God’s Signs are ‘recited in sequence to him,’ asking a rhetorical question: 

….in which Hadeeth, after God and His Signs, shall they believe/have faith?
Regarding the term ‘hadeeth,’ regular Readers will remember the following:
“Certainly, the BEST of all ‘Hadeeth’ is what God sends us. 
Furthermore, His is the TRUEST of all Hadeeth (HQ 4:87)-"...ومن أصدق من الله حديثا"  - The word ‘hadeeth’ appears 23 times in the Qur’an
We said earlier:

“Although we mostly relate the word ‘Hadeeth’ to Prophet Muhammad’s Sayings, peace upon him, the word means something ‘that was not there before, and is the opposite of ‘old’ or قديم ‘qadeem.’  It also means something that is being announced in real time "خبر"  In this context it refers to the Qur’an as being the latest communication from God.  In that context we can take the Prophet’s Hadeeth to be his communication.
See the verses which mention the Qur’an as the ‘best’ of Hadeeth (HQ39:23) أحسن الحديث, or ‘this Hadeeth هذا الحديث (HQ18:6; 53:59; 56:81; 68:44).”

In this verse however, please note that the ‘hadeeth’ are THE AYAAT/ SIGNS we see all around us, in constant renewal!  If some of us are blinded to recognizing The Creator Himself in His wondrous creation, what would ever convince us?

2.   After asking this rhetorical question, Verses 7- 10 bewail every ‘hindering liar’ أفاك أثيم .. who hears God’s Signs being recited in sequence to him, yet….

‘.., yet as though he had not heard them, persists in his haughty disdain!
Hence, announce unto him grievous suffering –
for when he does become aware of any of Our messages, he makes them a target of his mockery!  For all such there is shameful suffering in store.

New Readers:
Put the English word of Arabic origin ‘wail’ ويل- in ‘Search this Site.

Nothing would avail such persons; neither their ‘earnings’ nor the ‘intimate protectors’ they had taken for themselves other than God,

3. Verse 11 asserts that THIS is Guidance, and that those who deny God’s Signs shall have a painful suffering of ‘rijz’ which indicates ‘turbulence’ of the physical kind (the ‘non-physical’ is ‘rijs’).
Earlier, we explained the difference between ‘rijz رجز-’ and ‘rijsرجس-’ saying that many commentators consider both ‘identical.’  We read the definitions of both words ([i]) in our 1,000 year old Lexicon and asserted that no two words are ever identical!

Verses 12-13 (similar to earlier verses HQ 14:32; 22:65) mention more of God’s Signs which He has made subject to our needs.  We are invited to use these ‘signs’ in appreciation and productiveness, causing each gift to grow even as WE grow… and even as we constantly reflect.

PAGE 500 Arabic Qur’an.

4.  Verses 14- 15 tell the Messenger to inform Those who have attained Faith that they should forgive ‘Those who do not aspire for/ expect God’s Events…..’ (referring to Qureish who did not believe in the Hereafter.  The Qur’an indicates that they neither aspire for/ seek ‘to meet God,’ nor do they aspire for/ seek His Mercy). 

Then we learn WHY people of Faith should forgive them: 
People of Faith should forgive them so that God would recompense people by what they were earning. 

Maybe that’s because having faith in God means trusting that He would best recompense everyone.  And perhaps, by forgiving others, it is we who shall earn the highest recompense!

Verse 15 follows up, making it quite clear that each of us performs goodness FOR (liل-) oneself or bad deeds AGAINST (‘alaعلى- ) oneself, and that to our Lord we shall return.

5.   Then Verses 16- 17 list the bounties which God gave Bani Isra-eel, and tells us that this was in excess of what He had given all others.

When God ‘faDdala’ someone ‘ala’ another -فضّل على- it simply means He ‘gave something to someone in excess of another.  It does not mean ‘favoring’ in today’s usage of the word, which smacks of ‘favoritism.’  Furthermore, the list of what He gave them precedes the word ‘faDdala,’ which makes the meaning quite clear.
When we seek correct interpretations we realize that we all earn our merit and that:  God has no ‘favorites!’

Verse 17 mentions that Bani Isra-eel fell to discord and diverged after THE Knowledge had been delivered to them.  The reason for that was their ‘baghi’ amongst each other.
'Baghi,' as we mentioned earlier, is a wrong which takes place whenever persons seeking their own interests resort to corrupt actions.  'Baghi' is not only forbidden, but it is one of the Inviolable 'Muharramaat' (HQ 7:33).
These verses, dear Reader, should be a lesson to all of us who profess to believe in the Qur’an!  THE ‘Knowledge’ (which points to the Compilation) is both a huge gift and responsibility.  Only Aware persons would SELFLESSLY uphold and propagate that Knowledge without using it as leverage.  Reducing Knowledge to no more than a power-tool is a grievous wrong-doing; its judgment being God’s Alone at the Time of Resurrection. 

Note that this is a Meccan Chapter, which points to the state of affairs at the time of Revelation, when Bani Isra-eel seem to have continued to promote themselves as THE holders of Knowledge, despite the fact that God was delivering the Compilation again–to someone else.  But just as most of them had denied Jesus and the Evangel, most of them were to deny Muhammad and the Qur’an.  The next verses are clear in showing this Messenger as the contemporary guide.

6.  Verses 18 begisn with the word ‘thumma’ which denotes something occurring after a length of time had passed (since Bani Isra-eel were delivered the Knowledge and became discordant amongst themselves due to self-interest and corruption). 

Addressed to the Messenger, these verses tell him/us that after a length of time he was rendered upon a ‘shari’ah’ of affairs, and that he should pursue it and not pursue the (plummeting/ hawa) desires of those who do not know, for they are of no avail to him, but rather are protectors of each other, while God Himself is Protector of the Aware. 

Sadly, the word ‘Shari’ah’ today carries NARROW connotations, vehemently defended by some and vehemently denounced by others, while ‘Shari’ah’ is the exact opposite to restriction!

Shari’ah is literally an OPEN, STRETCHING, way or path ([ii])!

Variations of this word appear in the Qur’an with regard to the single Standard of Accountability which has been one and the same throughout the ages, reintroduced to humanity by different Messengers, peace upon them all (see (شرع من الدين.
Please read HQ 5:48 and our earlier explanation of a variant of the word (‘shir’ah’) which we explained as ‘system:’

“………to each of you have We rendered a System and an Approach, and if God had willed He would have indeed made of you a single ‘people/community,’ but (He willed it otherwise) to test (each of) you with what He has granted you, therefore compete towards all ‘virtues/good works,’ unto God will you all return then He will inform you of the matters in which you were (constantly) differing.”

In that post we added:

“It is not a different ‘religion’ that each of us has, but a different system شرعة  and a different approach منهاج – and that’s how God willed it, to see who accomplishes best with what they are given.”

So, if we were to understand ‘Shari’ah’ correctly, we’d consider it an OPEN, STRETCHING way, upon which each generation conducts its affairs according to what is most beneficial for its time and conditions, making sure to follow Qur’anic guidance and never to commit any of the inviolables. 
And if we were to take these verses in context, we’d also BEWARE of using this Compilation for leverage, so that there would be no self-interest and corruption to bring us discord amongst ourselves and cause us to diverge into opposing groups, all professing faith in this Compilation and claiming to uphold it.  Furthermore, we would make sure that we do not allow anyone to narrow the ‘shari’ah’ down and cut it off, or replace the original meanings of Qur’anic words with others.

Dear Reader, it seems–at this point in time- that we have already done all what we were told not to do. 

But there is Hope simply because we are now retrieving the original meanings of words and can start fresh.  This is why OUR ENDEAVOR HERE at iqrathechallenge IS SO IMPORTANT.

Verse 20 asserts that THIS is to an Eye-opener 'basa'er- بصائر' – to Cognizant Humans; it is visible proof or evidence (Ali/Asad: ‘clear evidences/ means of insight'- see 5 occurrences), AND it is Guidance and Mercy to people of Certitude (see  قوم يوقنون).

7. Verse 21 asks Those who have committed bad deeds, that how could they expect to be rendered similar, whether in life or death, to Those who have attained Faith and performed good deeds… what poor judgment indeed!
Then Verse 22 begins- similar to other verses- by asserting that God has created the Exalted Expanses and the Earth in Truth and Justice.. but then this verse says ‘so that (li) each Self can be recompensed by what it has earned, and none shall be wronged!’

Enough said!
Our next Reading is from HQ 46:23-37 and 47:1-7, where–God-willing- we shall begin part 26/30 of the Qur’an!

Peace unto all!

[i] رجز:  يدلُّ على اضطرابٍ.
من ذلك الرَّجَزُ: داءٌ يصيبُ الإبلَ في أعجازِها... ومن هذا اشتقاق الرَّجَزِ من الشِّعر؛ لأنه مقطوع مضطرب. والرِّجازة: كِساءٌ يُجْعَل فيه أحجارٌ تعلّق بأحد جانِبَي الهَودج إذا مالَ؛ وهو يَضطَرِبُ. والرِّجَازة أيضاً: صوفٌ يعلّق على الهَودج يُزَيَّن به. فأما الرِّجْز الذي هو العذاب، والذي هو الصَّنَم، في قوله جلّ ثناؤه: {والرِّجْزَ فاهْجُرْ} [المدثر 5]، فذاك من باب الإبدال؛ لأن أصلَه السّينُ؛ وقد ذُكِر.

رجس:  يدلُّ على اختلاطٍ.
يقال هُمْ في مَرْجُوسَةٍ مِن أمرِهم، أي اختِلاط. والرَّجْس: صوت الرَّعد، وذلك أنه يتردَّد. وكذلك هَدِيرُ البعيرِ رَجْسٌ. وسَحابٌ رَجّاسٌ، وبعيرٌ رَجّاس. وحكى ابنُ الأعرابيِّ: هذا رَاجِسٌ حَسَنٌ، أي راعِدٌ حَسن. ومن الباب الرِّجْس: القَذَر؛ لأنّه لَطْخٌ وخَلْط

[ii] شرع: شيءٌ يُفتَح في امتدادٍ يكون فيه. من ذلك الشّريعة، وهي مورد الشَّارِبة الماء.

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